Bdellovibrio, the cannibalistic drug coming to humanity’s rescue _ ars technica uk stock ticker for oil futures


“It has a psychological problem,” jokes Robert Mitchell, a microbiologist and an associate professor at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology in South Korea. 100 kroner to usd “It thinks it’s a virus.”

Though it may have an identity crisis, Bdellovibrio has managed to spread to a wide range of environments, including soil, bodies of water, animals, plants, and humans. Binary star And its unique set of oddities has made it rather appealing to researchers, many of whom have realized its potential utility—biomedically, industrially, even environmentally.

Scientists are exploring all sorts of ways to use these Bdellovibrio, largely inspired by its rather strange life cycle. 1000 usd to eur Typically, bacteria work pretty simply. Usd to rmb exchange rate history Once they get to an environment with useful nutrients,

they spend some time preparing for growth and then they reproduce. Euronews online russian Their reproduction is rapid and usually accomplished via binary fission: they split themselves, forming two identical clones.

But Bdellovibrio is parasitic; it reproduces by attacking other bacteria. Dollar to pound exchange rate history “It can only finish its life cycle by preying on other bacteria,” says Daniel Kadouri, an associate professor in the Center for Oral Infectious Diseases at Rutgers University. Dollar to yen exchange rate forecast First, the bacterium attaches to the outside of a bacterial cell and drills a hole through the outer membrane. Binary addition It then enters the cell and begins dissolving and consuming the host cell’s proteins and nucleic acids. Eur usd exchange rate live “It sits between the inner and outer membranes and starts secreting enzymes that will basically break down the prey from the inside,” Kadouri told Ars. Usd in cad Finally, after feeding on its prey, dividing, and producing multiple progeny, the bacteria burst out of the host cell, tearing it apart in the process.

And Bdellovibrio is very efficient in all this. Stock market today futures According to Kadouri, “From one Bdellovibrio bacterium coming in, you can get several coming out.”

The strange Bdellovibrio and its predatory ways were discovered by accident. The millionaire fastlane In 1962, researchers Heinz Stolp and Heinz Petzold made two mistakes. Picture format converter First, while filtering soil for viruses, the two ran out of the right sized filters. Exchange rate us to canadian dollar They used a different kind that had much larger pores, and this let some Bdellovibrio through.

Once Stolp and Petzold had filtered their soil samples, they tested the filtered part for viruses by culturing it in a petri dish filled with bacteria. Gold price in usa per ounce If after 24 hours no sign of viral infection had appeared, the protocol was to trash the samples. Usa today news And after they used the larger filter, the soil sample showed no viral growth after a day—yet for some reason, they didn’t throw it out. Usd gbp conversion Three days later, they tested it again and found something that was acting a lot like a virus would. Funny quotes about work stress That something was Bdellovibrio. Sftp binary mode Stolp and Petzold only found it because the larger pore filters allowed Bdellovibrio to get through.

Since then, researchers have learned a lot about the organism’s lifestyle, recognizing that it could prove useful in a number of ways. Usd eur graph Gram +/-Bacteria can be divided into two types: gram-positive and gram-negative. Future stock market The “gram” refers to the Gram staining method, in which a dye called crystal violet is applied to the bacteria. Funny jokes for adults Following some other steps, the bacteria are then rinsed with ethanol or acetone. Euro vs usd forecast Gram-positive bacteria hold on to the stain and appear purple under a microscope. Venezuela money to us dollars This is because they have really thick cell walls made up of a polymer called peptidoglycan that attracts the crystal violet dye.

Gram-negative bacteria don’t hold on to the stain because they have comparatively thin cell walls with fewer layers of the peptidoglycan. Gold forecast today Their cell membrane is also washed away during the ethanol/acetone rinse, exposing the thin cell wall, which has a hard time hanging on to the dye. Exchange rate us to aud Some examples of gram-positive bacteria are streptococcus and staphylococcus, while strains like E. Technical analysis of the futures markets john murphy pdf download coli and N. 50 eur to usd gonorrhoeae are gram-negative.

One big way Bdellovibrio could help us out is in the fight against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Python xml Increasing numbers of bacterial strains are becoming difficult to fight with traditional drugs. Cnbc pre market futures With few options left in our toolbox, researchers are looking at non-traditional ways to combat them. Usd cad forecast And because Bdellovibrio feeds on other bacteria, it makes an appealing alternative to antibiotics.

When discussing the development of drug-resistant bacteria, Kadouri told Ars, “They were always there, but we always had good drugs to treat them with. Convert aed to usd The bacteria didn’t learn a new trick. Flower quotes tumblr They mutate and evolve. Verizon troubleshooting number That’s what they do.” The problem today is that we put the bacteria in a position that forced them to mutate very rapidly. Verizon modem password “What we’re doing is we’re submerging the environment with so many antibiotics, we’re speeding up the process of natural selection,” says Kadouri. Usd to kes exchange rate today And our overuse of antibiotics isn’t limited to hospitals and hand sanitizer. Usd aud conversion As Kadouri points out, 80 percent of our antibiotics are used in agriculture.

Not only are we pushing these bacteria toward drug resistance, we’re not producing new antibiotics to fight them rapidly enough. Stock superstock “When pharmaceutical companies develop a drug for a chronic disease, people are going to be taking that drug for 40 or 50 years. Gold price chart Whereas with antibiotics, you’ll be taking them for five days and then within two years, the bacteria will become resistant,” says Kadouri. Usd to aud conversion “So where’s the return in investment? It’s kind of the perfect storm.”

But using Bdellovibrio in conjunction with or instead of antibiotics seems to be a viable option. Gold chart 2016 Scientists have tested it against two classes of bacteria (gram-negative and gram-positive) to see how well it fares against them.

Research has shown that many types of gram-negative bacteria fall as prey to Bdellovibrio, which is a gram-negative bacterium itself. British pound to usd history But prior to 2013, it wasn’t known how well the bacteria preyed on multidrug-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria. 1 usd to inr forecast Kadouri and his team selected 14 different multidrug-resistant strains, using those typically found in a clinical setting. Gold price per gram They then tested how well Bdellovibrio brought down the viability of the bacterial strains.

Two different Bdellovibrio strains turned out to be highly effective at reducing the viability of the 14 tested strains, regardless of their resistance to antibiotics. Vnd to usd chart But the fact that we had to do this work at all highlighted what we don’t know—why does Bdellovibrio prey on some bacteria and not others? “To this day, not much is known about the biology of these organisms,” says Mitchell. 100 aud to usd “We don’t know how they recognize their prey.” Page: 1 2 Next →