Cardiovascular disease – more attention required for women

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is by far the leading cause of death in industrial countries. Future marketing trends 2015 However, there are significant differences by continent/region, and even more so in terms of gender. Aud in usd There have also been some major recent changes in the evolution of CVD, compared to another major source of mortality – cancer. Usd to euro chart Once again here, there are some female-specific factors of interest.


For Europe as a whole, latest figures from the World Health Organization (WHO) show CVD accounting for 45percent of deaths, approximately the same level as the US, where the figure is 44percent.

There are also differences between the US and Europe in the relative impact of CVD versus cancer. Stock market future predictions 2015 In the former, cancer accounts for 32percent of deaths (or almost three-fourths of that from CVD). Rmb to usd In Europe, the share of cancer is less than half CVD deaths. Euro usd chart The WHO data cover 52 countries in Europe, including all members of the European Union (EU).

Traditionally, heart disease was thought of as a man’s’ illness, although approximately the same number of women and men died each year of heart disease in the US and the EU.

Indeed, gender issues in CVD deaths are significant, both in the US and Europe. Exchange rate aud to usd Although a higher number of males die in the US from CVD as compared to females, the share of CVD as a cause of death is only slightly higher in American women (44.3percent vs. Currency converter zar to usd 43.4percent).

In ten advanced EU countries, more men now die from cancer than CVD. Usd to ruble exchange rate These countries are Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, and the UK. Dollar to pound chart The case is the same for an EU non-member, Norway. Euro usd rate Conversely, the highest numbers of deaths from CVD tend to be seen in Eastern European countries.

In much of Europe, however, latest WHO data show more than double the number of deaths from CVD compared with cancer, in women. Silver price chart 5 year 15 countries in this group report CVD causing more than four times the number of deaths in women as cancer, compared to only 6 for men.

Meanwhile, death rates from CVD have declined in all countries over the past ten years. Usd to ringgit malaysia However, in some countries, women have seen a relatively lower fall than men in age standardized mortality rates, over the period. British pound exchange rate history These include Luxembourg (50percent for men vs. Stock market definitions glossary 42percent for women), the Netherlands (39percent vs. Futures and options trading meaning 32percent) and Sweden (31percent vs. Conversion rate aud to usd 26percent), and to some extent Ireland, Italy and Switzerland.

One immediate priority for health professionals and policy makers is to raise awareness about CVD and women. 1 nzd to usd Currently, Red Day’, Go Red for Women’ and Women at Heart’ campaigns by professional societies and patient groups in the US and Europe have sought to boost awareness further, and do this faster.

The reasons for this are evident. Dollar and rupee exchange rate In the US, just over half of women surveyed recognize heart disease as their Number 1 killer, according to a 12-year follow-up study published in 2010 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality Outcomes’.

Nevertheless, the situation had improved significantly compared to the baseline year of 1997 when only 30 percent identified heart disease as the leading killer of women, with 35 percent believing that cancer took this role.

The situation is worse in parts of Europe. Secret messages in logos In Ireland, for example, a recent Irish Heart Foundation report showed that less than one in 5 Irish women knew CVD as being the leading cause of female mortality.

The reasons for believing CVD was a man’s’ disease (as mentioned above) were not simply hearsay. Rub usd Women are protected by their hormones against CVD during their child-bearing years. Usd to chf exchange rate However, this protection is lost as soon as they enter menopause. Gender articles The net result is that women tend to get CVD at an age about 10 years more than men.

To complicate matters, CVD symptoms in women are sometimes different from those in men. Currency converter usd to aed This adds to under-recognition of heart disease in women. Usd to aud rate For example, heart attack symptoms in women such as chest pain can be less profound than in men. Futures market news Women may only feel an uncomfortable pressure in the chest centre which occurs sporadically or lasts a few minutes, or experience pain in one or both arms, their neck, back or stomach, along with shortness of breath and accompanied by a cold sweat, nausea, vertigo and weakness. Convert to binary code Moreover, it has also been established that women have a higher prevalence of silent ischemia and of unrecognized myocardial infarction than men.

One of the beliefs which has endured for several decades is that the estrogen drop during menopausal transition induces increased post-menopausal CVD risk in women, probably through harmful changes in CVD risk factors. Usd to inr forecast 2015 One of the findings supporting this conclusion was that women who reached menopause before the age of 40 had a two-year lower life expectancy than women with a normal or late menopause.

This was the reason for the popularity of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), or exogenous estrogens. Us stock futures cnn money Until recently, HRT was recommended for use in post-menopausal women to limit CVD risk. 1 rmb to usd The hypothesis was supported by several observational studies, but could not be conclusively proved in large randomized trials. Today’s exchange rate usd to cad Instead, HRT was shown to increase CVD event rate in older (>60 years) post-menopausal women. Binary to text converter online As a result, clinicians now recommend a careful evaluation of the risk/benefit of HRT replacement for preventing CVD, and the use of HRT has declined.

Other, concurrent risk factors include hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and metabolic syndrome. Euro to dollar exchange rate 2015 These increase in women over the age of 45, or a few years before menopause.

For example, systolic blood pressure rises steeply in older women compared with men. Love quotes for girlfriend Hypertension is associated strongly with a higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic heart failure (HF). Chf usd bloomberg Studies have shown that even borderline hypertension (less than 14/9 cm Hg) causes more cardiovascular complications in females than in men.

At younger age, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia is lower in women than men, but at over 65 years age, mean LDL-cholesterol levels are higher in women. Gender roles articles Hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C levels are far more important risk factors for CVD in women than for men, as discussed below.

Nevertheless, of the biggest areas of concern is Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which poses a much higher greater risk for cardiovascular complications in women than in men.

One meta-analysis of 37 prospective cohort studies published in the British Medical Journal’ in December 2006 found mortality risk to be 50percent higher in women with diabetes compared with men. Funny quotes and sayings for facebook In addition, it has been shown that Type 2 diabetes is a potent, independent risk factor for heart failure in women. Exchange rate usd to malawi kwacha However, this cannot be fully explained by coexisting cardiovascular risk factors or previous myocardial infarctions.

Lifestyle changes also play a role. Convert usd to inr Obesity, for example, is a major CVD risk factor. Usa today sports page It is more prevalent in men under the age of 45, but has begun to increase with advancing age in women, reducing the gap with time, and often reversing it in older women. Us to inr exchange rate today This was one of the findings of a report called European Heart Health Strategy: Red Alert on Women’s Hearts’, published in 2009 by the EuroHeart Project, funded by the EU Commission and conducted jointly by the European Heart Network (EHN) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

The case of HRT, where findings from large randomized trials reversed those of observational studies, has brought another priority to the forefront, namely to increase the presence of women in CVD clinical trials.

The EU-funded EuroHeart project (see above) found women to be under-represented in many trials, even where important gender differences are present within most areas of heart disease. Euro to pound conversion rate The proportion of women enrolled was 27-41percent, even though the female prevalence of clinical conditions under study in the general population was similar for both men and women.

The case in the US is similar, in spite of a legal requirement that research funded by tax receipts must include women and minority groups. Usd to rmb exchange rate One study found that trials by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, attached to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), enrolled 38percent women for the years 1965-1998. Stock market today futures This fell further to 27percent in 1997-2006. Dollar exchange rate Furthermore, only 13 of 19 studies analysed gender differences.

Apart from the traditional belief that CVD was a man’s’ disease, some experts believe that cost may also have been a consideration in under-recruitment of women, whose hormonal fluctuations tend to complicate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis.

Nevertheless, given the growing burden of CVD in middle-aged women relative to men, it is evident that greater gender-specific cardiovascular research is required to adapt existing guidelines for better cardiovascular health in women.

There is intriguing evidence that pregnancy might be a useful stress-test’ for future CVD risk. Pound to euro exchange rate today Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy have been shown to be predictors for CVD events in later life. Gold forecast 2020 Impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes in pregnancy are also female-specific risk factors for the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in young women.

One of the conditions under close scrutiny is pre-eclampsia, which is characterized by high blood pressure and large amounts of protein in the urine. Usd cad forecast Although the etiology of pre-eclampsia has yet to be established with certainty, the hyperlipidemia of normal pregnancy (elevated total cholesterol and triglycerides) becomes more extreme in women developing the condition. Love quotes from the bible The sharp growth in triglycerides leads to increased production of LDL (up to 3-4 times more than in a normal’ pregnancy), along with reduced HDL-C. Usd eur converter Together, this contributes to endothelial dysfunction.

One ongoing trial at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Massachusetts seeks to demonstrate an association between pre-eclampsia during pregnancy and altered blood vessel function and abnormal hormone levels in later life. Aus usd The trial, known as Preeclampsia: A Marker for Future Cardiovascular Risk in Women’ commenced in 2012. Gbp usd fx rate Its results are expected to be published in the near future.

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