Cpd 1 2017_ living walls _ online features _ building

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A living wall – also known as a green wall or vertical greening system – incorporates planting into building construction by covering facades or other internal or external walls with vegetation. Cnbc stock market futures This can be for purely aesthetic purposes or for a variety of functional reasons. Gbp to usd rate A green wall can be modular or simply a wired trellis system and can be attached to an existing facade, or be a freestanding structure. Pound exchange rate This CPD will examine the benefits of living walls and outline the key design considerations.


Us stock market futures live BENEFITS OF LIVING WALLS

As with all plants, living walls can help to improve air quality by filtering chemical pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), from the air and trapping particulate matter (PM). Aed to usd chart A 2012 study by researchers at Lancaster University, published in the journal, Environmental Science and Technology, explored the interplay between urban form (specifically the gaps between buildings, known as urban street canyons, which are hotspots for damaging pollutants) and green wall vegetation. Gbp to usd yahoo This study showed that the planting of vegetation in street canyons can reduce street-level concentrations by as much as 40% for NO 2 and 60% for PM. Cool pictures Moreover, vegetation will continue to offer benefits in the reduction of pollution even if the traffic source is removed from city centres. Jpy usd yahoo The study concludes: “Judicious use of vegetation can create an efficient urban pollutant filter, yielding rapid and sustained improvements in street-level air quality in dense urban areas.”

The 2012 Transport for London (TfL) report, Delivering Vertical Greening, included a study by Imperial College London on the role of a green wall at a London tube station on the capture and mitigation of air pollution. Binary representation The wall has a modular structure and includes 15 species of plant covering an area of about 200m 2. Dollar rate today in india The study, which measured the mass of PM captured per unit of surface area for the different plant species, indicated that plants with small leaves with a high density of hairs were most efficient at intercepting PM particles. Binary search javascript The best-performing species included the shrub Convolvulus cneorum and the herbaceous plant Stachys byzantina (Lambs’ ears). Usd euro chart Plant orientation was found to have no significant effect. Gold price history chart 100 years Over a three-month period, the total PM capture from the green wall was calculated to be 515g.

Plants on buildings can provide a food source for invertebrates, on which, in turn, other invertebrates and birds may feed. Yahoo futures indices Living walls can also provide a breeding and nesting habitat, and the structures can include bird and bat boxes and even “insect hotels”. Usa today Careful choice of species and the orientation of the wall will increase the potential to harbour wildlife. Rmb usd For example, a 2008 technical report by Design for London cites native ivy (Hedera helix) as “a valuable food source for innumerable invertebrates which feed on its leaves, flowers and nectar … it also provides valuable over-wintering and hibernation habitat”. 100 eur to usd In addition, a living wall can be part of an overall city greening strategy linking ground-level open space with street trees, water courses and living roofs.

Living walls have a cooling effect on the external temperature of buildings and can provide a certain amount of thermal insulation in winter, although this depends on the type and density of living wall and energy performance of the building.

Living walls can shield a surface from both ultraviolet rays and acid rain, both of which can cause damage to a wide range of construction and cladding materials. Dow jones futures exchange The Design for London report also notes that, contrary to received wisdom, climbing plants can actually help to protect the surface of a building structure from damage, particularly from very heavy driving rain and hail. Stock connect china Planting can also protect a building structure from ultraviolet light – according to a 1989 study by Rath & Kiebl at the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, 50% of solar energy is absorbed by planting and a further 30% is reflected.

The plants and soil in a living wall system absorb and deflect sound, both indoors, as a divider between work areas, and outside, as a sound barrier. Today’s futures market A 2015 study published in the journal Applied Acoustics found that weighted sound reduction of 15dB could be achieved by a green wall.

Living walls can help to soften the appearance of new building developments. Cad usd exchange rate Enhancing public areas can also reduce vandalism. Rub usd converter The 2012 TfL report cites experience from London and nationwide to suggest that vandalism of green walls is rare and security breaches (such as climbing) are extremely difficult. Litecoin charts The reduction in air pollution is also likely to improve the health of people living and working in the vicinity.

Sir David Attenborough abseils down the 13m-high living wall in the central atrium of the new building named after him at the University of Cambridge TYPES OF LIVING WALL SYSTEM

There are a range of available options, and specification will depend on factors including price, intended visual effect and purpose, and the preferred structural framework. Usd jpy chart Broadly speaking, living walls can be divided into three categories: wire, hydroponic and natural soil systems.

Wire systems are normally used outdoors, although they are suitable for indoor use, and involve attaching tensioned cables to the building exterior to act as a trellis. Market futures yahoo Species are limited to plants that climb by twining and it can take several years to produce good coverage, although some suppliers do offer pre-grown wire systems. Usd to zar exchange rate history Although wire systems are cheaper than hydroponic or natural soil alternatives, they offer limited aesthetic effects, due to both the lack of plant variety and also the lack of density.

A hydroponic system uses a man-made substrate, such as mineral fibre, as the growing medium to support the plants. What is the futures market They are generally grown on preconstructed panels before being transported to site and attached to a framework on the side of the structure to be covered. Binary search tree program in c Nutrients are then constantly pumped through the system to promote growth. Gender pregnancy As a modular approach, hydroponics offer more flexibility in terms of aesthetics and functionality than a wire system, and are also lightweight. Exchange rate usd to inr However, the artificial growth medium prevents the plants ever reaching a strong rooting structure and if the irrigation system fails the plants will die very quickly. Stock market trading hours new years eve Maintenance costs are consequently higher, as plants need more frequent replacement.

These systems are also modular, with similar advantages to hydroponic walls. Eur usd news today They typically use moulded troughs or containers that are built on or attached to existing walls. Rate of exchange usd to zar Planting is supported by a lightweight combination of recycled materials containing the right balance of nutrients with a free-draining medium. Decimal division calculator An example of a modular natural soil system is the ANS Global Living Wall System, which has eight modules, each with 12 cells, per square metre, allowing for 96 plants. Futures market size Such systems enable deeper root growth, which means that plants can grow larger and survive for longer without water, though they are also heavier than other types of system which should be considered in the structural design.

Not to be confused with modular natural soil systems, these systems have a fixed pocket for each plant with limited space for root development. Euro to usd exchange rate forecast Some systems are simply vertical supports rather like shelves and include rows of pot plants, sometimes at an angle, which from a distance can appear like a green facade. Exchange rate gbp usd These simplistic systems can work effectively in the short term, but over time they prove less effective with significantly higher plant replacement levels as plants are constricted within the small pockets or pots.

Careful selection of plant species is crucial to the ongoing success of a living wall and can lead to significant savings on maintenance costs. Currency converter us to aud Factors to consider include:

• Local native plant species may be chosen to compensate the ecosystem for wildlife lost through new development. Html editor windows 10 However, it is important to note that local plant types may not have been trialled in a vertical environment (which typically includes more dense planting than at ground level) and may or may not prove successful.

• Plants are more typically chosen based on desired visual effect. Trading places stock market scene video Living walls can be planted to create defined swathes of plant species or to form words, as logos or specific shapes. Meaning of futures and options in stock market Certain colours might be chosen to fit with company branding, while flowering plants can provide seasonal interest and pleasing scents. Currency conversion aud to usd Colour-specific examples include:

• Edible plants: some living walls include a food source either for humans or for local wildlife. Exchange rate jpy to usd Plants that can work in this way include soft fruits such as strawberry (Fragaria vesca) or tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and herbs such as mint (Mentha), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) or sage (Salvia officinalis).

• Plants can be used to express a particular nationality or a global theme. Dollar pound chart For example, at the David Attenborough Building at the University of Cambridge there is a living wall which includes plants from across the globe to reflect the diversity of countries to which the naturalist Sir David Attenbourgh has travelled. Usd to inr live chart The plants chosen include:

• Thymus vulgaris is an evergreen plant that provides a source of nectar for butterflies and bees, particularly beneficial for the common carder bee, honey bee, red mason bee & white tail bumblebee

• Hebe salicifolia is an evergreen plant. What is a binary system Its leaves are important for the eggs and larvae of the Pyrgus malvae butterfly, the flat-backed millipede and the honeybee

The 14-storey Digby Road apartment building in Homerton, east London, features a 220m 2 living wall with more than 24,600 plants provided by ANS Global, believed to be the tallest in Europe. Gbp usd rate today The wall provides structural protection and was wind tested up to 140mph for this application. Python example programs MAINTENANCE

Like a garden at ground level, a living wall requires regular maintenance to keep it healthy and in good condition. Currency conversion usd to aud Considering maintenance needs at design stage can save time and money later. Free quotes for car insurance Features that can make maintenance easier include hooking spaces for abseilers or suitable ground surface and access for a cherry-picker or scissor lift to reach the high areas of the living wall. Gbp to usd exchange rate forecast For example, the living wall at the Howick Place office development in London included a metal ladder to which abseiling height safety equipment could be attached.

Living wall maintenance will include regular visits to ensure the computer-controlled irrigation system is distributing the correct amount of water throughout the wall. Usd to aud forecast It is recommended that this is checked at monthly intervals. How does the commodity futures market work At the same time, visual inspection should be carried out on plants to check for any early signs of pest or disease. Hkd usd peg If issues are discovered, a biological (environmentally friendly) treatment should be applied via the irrigation system. Nzd to usd chart Plant growth must be monitored and any localised pruning carried out.

Approximately twice a year a full plant husbandry visit should be arranged. Chf usd This will require full access to the wall. Forex rates in pakistan The plants will be pruned back in accordance with standard horticultural practice and any aged plants or failed plants can be replaced. Exchange rate of indian rupee to us dollar It is common to see up to 10% plant replacement each year.

For natural soil living wall systems, after pruning an organic phosphate and potassium feed can be applied via the irrigation system to encourage root development over the coming year. Msn news video For hydroponic systems, feed will be applied throughout the year as the plants have no organic substrate from which to draw nutrients. Eur usd exchange rate history Most living wall contractors will offer a specialised maintenance package for their living wall system.

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