Cplus course notes – looping constructs gbp to usd calculator


Computers are very good at performing repetitive tasks very quickly exchange rate usd to myr. In this section we will learn how to make computer repeat actions either a specified number of times or until some stopping condition is met. while Loops ( Condition-Controlled Loops )

• Both while loops and do-while loops ( see below ) are condition-controlled, meaning that they continue to loop until some condition is met.

• This guarantees that the loop will be performed at least once, which is useful for checking user input among other things ( see example below. )

• In theory the body can be either a single statement or a block of statements within { curly braces }, but in practice the curly braces are almost always used with do-whiles.

• Note that the above example could be improved by reporting to the user what the problem is if month is not in the range 1 to 12, and that it could also be done using a while loop if month were initialized to a value that ensures entering the loop.

• The third part of the loop is labeled "incrementation", because it usually takes the form of "i++" or something similar 1 usd to 1 gbp. However it can be any legal C/C++ statement, such as "N += 3" or "counter = base + delta".

• In the example above, the variable i is declared before the loop, and continues to exist after the loop has completed binary 24. You will also see occasions where the loop variable is declared as part of the for loop, in which case the variable exists only within the body of the loop, and is no longer valid when the loop completes:

• A common error is to place an extra semi-colon at the end of the while or for statement, producing an empty loop body between the closing parenthesis and the semi-colon, such as:

• Some programmers like to use successive integers i, j, k, l, etc. for use in nested for loops usd jpy forecast. This can be appropriate if the mathematics being implemented uses multiple ijk subscripts.

• Other times it can be less confusing to use alternative variables that are more meaningful to the problem at hand, such as the r and c variables used above to keep track of rows and columns.

• The limits as to how deeply loops may be nested is implementation dependent, but is usually too high to be of any concern, except in cases of extremely complex or extremely poorly written programs.

• Engineers and scientists frequently write iterative programs in which a floating point value steps through a range of values in small increments.

• For example, suppose the "time" variable needs to change from a low of tMin to a high of tMax in steps of deltaT, where all these variables are doubles.

• Numbers that seem "exact" to us in decimal form, such as 0.01 are not exact when the computer stores them in binary, which means that the value used for deltaT is really an approximation to the exact value.

• Therefore each addition step introduces a very small amount of roundoff error, and by the time you add up thousands of these errors, the total error can be significant.

• The number of times that the loop executes is now controlled by an integer, which does not have any roundoff error upon incrementation, so there is no chance of performing one too many or one too few iterations due to accumulated roundoff.

• The time variable is now calculated from a single multiplication and a single addition, which can still introduce some roundoff error, but far less than thousands of additions.

• The desired times would be 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, which is a total of 6 time values, not 5. ( Five intervals if you want to look at it that way. )

• Another way of looking at this is that if nTimes is the number of data points in the range, then nTimes – 1 is the number of gaps between the data points.

• Write a program that generates a table showing the difference between "time1" calculated as "time1 += deltaT" and "time2" calculated as "time2 = i * deltaT", for iterations from 0 up to an upper limit specified by the user yen to usd exchange rate history. The user should also specify a frequency for how frequently (s)he wants the results printed in the table gbp usd exchange rate. So if they enter 10 for the frequency you should print results every 10th time through the loop, and if they enter 100, then print every 100th time through the loop, etc 1 usd sgd. Hint: Use mod for the printing frequency.

• Write a program to calculate epsilon, the smallest value that can be added to 1.0 and still be distinguished from 1.0 bloomberg markets commodities futures. Hint: Start with epsilon equal to 1.0, and then keep dividing it by 2.0 until 1.0 + epsilon / 2.0 is indistinguishable from 1.0;