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During a recent assessment the client had close to 10,000 Mac OSX systems throughout their global presence. Euro pound conversion rate All of these Macs were authenticating to Active Directory and allowed all logged in users local admin rights; via a misconfigured sudoers rule. Eur usd exchange rate chart Since this blog is lacking any real reference material specifically for OSX, I figured I would detail the information gathering and attacks I preformed during the assessment.

Usd cad exchange rate history Attacks and Methodology
The default base install of Apple OSX will allow the primary user configured on that workstation to sudo to root. Forex rates in pakistan today open market When Active Directory backed authentication is used, newly logged in users can inherit the primary user role if system defaults are not changed. Cnnmoney premarket futures This would effectively make all domain users local admins on all of the affected Macs. Convert usd to pound sterling This is good news since root level permission is required to pull local password hashes.
If the OSX systems do not use AD authentication don’t fret. Nzd usd analysis By default the SSH server is enabled and it does not have any lock outs on failed login attempts. Euro to aud forecast If all else fails, physical attacks still work very well against OSX. Futures markets quotes Just walk up to one and hold Command+S during boot to log into a single user root terminal. Hkd to usd conversion If the system isn’t using full disk encryption you can simply copy files over to a USB flash drive.
Once you have a terminal on a Mac, it’s good to check user and group memberships. Eur usd history Again, if the user is a part of the admin group they can sudo by default; and if they are part of the wheel group they are effectively root.The following is a list of useful commands to use when in a terminal: dscl . Gbp to usd calculator -list /Users #List local users
Note: The commands above all have a target of ‘.’ or ‘localhost’. Euro to usd history If the system is connected to Active Directory it can be queried in a similar manner.To list all Domain Admins use the following command: dscl /Active\ Directory// -list /Groups/Domain\ Admins
If the user doesn’t have sudo or root privileges, you can try to elevate to root privileges with one of several local privilege escalation vulnerabilities. Mxn to usd converter Some recent noteworthy options include CVE-2015-5889, CVE-2015-1130, or just use some of the Yosemite environment variables like the following: echo ‘echo “$(whoami) ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL” >&3’ | DYLD_PRINT_TO_FILE=/etc/sudoers newgrp; sudo -s
If the device is up to date on its patches about all one can do is some file pillaging. Msn news page The two things I would note are Apple scripts (.scpt) and property list (.plist) files are very popular in OSX. Usd to zambian kwacha Both file types are stored to disk as binary files. Usd to vnd chart As such they need to be converted back to ASCII, to be human readable.
Note: plutil will convert files in place, so take care to make copies of files you’re working with.Alternatively the plist files can be exfiltrated to Kali and converted to XML using the libplist-utils library. Exchange rate euro dollar today The conversion command might look something like this:
If root level access is acquired, we can go straight after the local user’s plist files. Dollar indian rupee exchange rate Each user’s plist file contains their individual settings and their encrypted credentials. Currency converter us dollars to pounds The directory that contains all local users’ plist files is /private/var/db/dslocal/nodes/Default/users/.
If another user is currently logged into the system, the user’s keychain can be dumped by root. Binary code alphabet This will provide clear text access to all saved credentials, iCloud keys, the file vault encryption key, and the user’s clear text password. Binary code converter To dump the users keychain use a security command like: security dump-keychain -d /Users//Library/Keychains/login.keychain
WARNING: In newer versions of OSX this will generate a dialog box on the user’s screen. Usd stock This will obviously alert the user and only produce usable output if the user accepts. Usd cad exchange rate chart OSX Password Cracking
There are several ways to gain access to the encrypted shadow data, which is needed to conduct OSX password cracking. Currency converter uk to us Two of them have already been mentioned above. Usd to aud conversion calculator If you have root access preform a dscl . Equity finance jobs -read /Users/ or if you grab the users plist file from /private/var/db/dslocal/nodes/Default/users/ and covert it to XML, there will be a XML element called ShadowHashData. Binary tutorial The ShadowHashData is a base64 encoded blob containing a plist file with the base64 encoded entropy, salt, and iterations within it.
The first step is to extract the plist file form the shadow hash data and convert it back to XML. Improper fraction to a mixed number calculator This can be done with the following commands: echo “” | base64 -D > shadowhash

mRemoteNG (mremote) is an open source project ( that provides a full-featured, multi-tab remote connections manager. Euro dollar exchange rate forecast It currently supports RDP, SSH, Telnet, VNC, ICA, HTTP/S, rlogin, and raw socket connections. Usd eur exchange rate Additionally, It also provides the means to save connection settings such as hostnames, IP addresses, protocol, port, and user credentials, in a password protected and encrypted connections file. When does us futures market open Problem
During a recent pentest, I was struggling to gain additional administrative access to key systems ,even with standard user authentication. Euro to usd rate However, during some share pillaging I found a backup of an old mRemote connections file. What is binary system The connections file houses all the information needed to gain remote access to a given system (IP/Hostname, Protocol, Port, Username, and Password). Commodity futures meaning However, the credentials are encrypted, by default, and the connections file was protected by a master password. Dollar vs pound chart Solution
It turns out, the master password is just used by the program to determine whether or not to load in the selected connections file. Usd rmb The stored credentials are actually encrypted with a static string, not the master password. Usd price today This creates a scenario wherein the master password hash can simply be replaced with a blank password hash, to bypass the master password prompt. Stock super stock forum Once the connections file is loaded, the program even has the ability to add additional “External tools”, which allow for access to the programs variables and memory space. Gender labels This allows for simple echo commands to be added to reveal hidden details about each connection, such as the clear text password. Euro pound exchange rate graph How to Access The Clear Text Credentials Method 1: Using the Program itself
Second navigate to the default mRemoteNG data folder (C:\Users\ \AppData\Roaming\mRemoteNG) or acquire the connections configuration file. Gender roles essay Alternatively, enter the path %appdata%/mRemoteNG into Start/Run, to go directly to the default installation location. Uss zumwalt Or use the portable version of the application, for any backup files you may have discovered while pillaging.
To see the clear text of a given password, go to “Tools” > “External Tools”. What are market futures Then right-click in the white space and choose “New External Tool”. Stock symbol for oil futures Next, in the External Tools Properties, fill in a “Display Name”, “Filename” and some “arguments”, with “Password lookup”, CMD and “/k echo %password%” respectively.
Once you have a meterpreter shell on an administrators system that has mRemoteNG installed, simply run the post module with the following command and enjoy clear text.
Note: mRemoteNG is a platform agnostic program, however the post module only works on Windows and will only parse the default connections file (confCons.xml) and location (%appdata%/mRemoteNG).

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