Discrete biochemistry of dna_ arithmetic dna molecules for binary additions, naturally found genetic logic circuits for plant sensing, and dna-based animation (pdf download available)


To date, a number of researchers are seeking for and/or designing novel molecules which function as arithmetic molecular engines. 1 usd to 1 aud Biomolecules such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins are examples of promising candidate molecules. 1 usd to rub In the present article, we showed our view that DNA-based molecules could be used as a novel class of platforms for discrete mathematical operations or tools for natural computation. Msn news headlines Here, we report on a novel molecular logic circuit combining exclusive disjunction (XOR) gate and conjunction (AND) gate implemented on a single DNA molecule performing arithmetic operations with simple binary numbers through polymerase chain reactions (PCR); which was inspired by previously developed protein-based computing model allowing simple polynomial algebra over fields through algebraic representation of cyclic inter-conversions in the catalytic modes of a plant enzyme as a cyclic additive group.

Convert usd to idr In addition, we showed that DNA can be used as the platform for image coding and processing leading to DNA-coded animation by using novel PCR-based protocols. Pound exchange rate to euro Lastly, we discussed the significance of recent attempts in the stream of natural computing and synthetic biological research, by handling DNA and related biomolecules as the media for discrete mathematical operations.

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Theoretical and experimental studies of assessment in animal contests have, until now, focused on disputes between single individuals. Binary search in python However, whereas single competitors usually avoid fights with opponents that are larger or stronger than themselves, in contests between social groups competitors might be expected to adjust their agonistic behaviour according to the number of individuals in their own and the opposing group. Usd jpy rate This hypothesis was tested using playback experiments to generate controlled artificial contests between groups of female lions. Cnn money market futures Recordings of single females roaring and groups of three females roaring in chorus were played back to simulate the presence of unfamiliar intruders within the territories of 21 different lion prides in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Usd to cop exchange rate Defending adult females were less likely to approach playbacks of three intruders than of a single intruder and on occasions when they did approach three intruders they made their approach more cautiously. Decimal places chart Defenders also carefully adjusted their decision to approach according to the size and composition of their own group, and attempted to recruit extra companions to the contest by roaring when some were absent at the time of playback. Python tutorial point A strong selective advantage to avoiding the costs of fighting with larger groups could have led to the widespread evolution of numerical assessment skills in social species.

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies handling the lights and the colors as key components of computation attracted the scientists and engineers since these studies are potentially applicable to the signal processing through optical interconnections between electronic devices. Cnn world markets futures Here, a novel optical computing model is proposed by modifying the known optical parallel logic gates, after employing the printed colors as the input/output data, instead of shadow gram images projected on a screen. Usd cny exchange rate the proposed approach allows spontaneous and parallel Boolean operations by simply overlaying the colors printed on films or duplicating the prints on papers. Usd rate in india by setting a limited number of color prototypes with known CIELAB color coordinates, prediction of color changes due to duplicated color printing and/or film-on-paper overlaying of the printed colors was performed through Boolean “AND” operation and their experimental confirmation after actual color reading was also performed. Futures definition stock market Furthermore, possible applications of this CIELAB-coded printable logic gate system in natural computing and development of novel color barcodes were discussed.

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