Hindu nationalism creeping into indian textbooks- nikkei asian review cad usd graph


On Tuesday, public school students in the western state of Rajasthan started a new academic year with a new social studies textbook that omitted all information about Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister. Also, the world-famous Indus Valley Civilization is now taught as Sindhu-Saraswati Culture — Saraswati is the Hindu goddess of wisdom — even though Hinduism was established after the Indus civilization.

In the western state of Maharashtra, of which Mumbai is the state capital, part of a Hindi textbook for sixth graders was found to have been altered usd to jpy. The actual preamble to the constitution says, "We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic …" But in the new Hindi textbook, "secular" — in Hindi "dharma nirpeksh," meaning "religion neutral" — was replaced by another Hindi term, "panth nirpeksh," meaning "sect neutral." This changes the scope of the constitution down to unity among different religious sects — mostly Hindu, as educational activists criticize — rather than unity between various religions such as Hindus, Muslims and Christians, as originally intended.

Under India’s federal system, state governments decide textbook content and school curricula. In Rajasthan, where Nehru disappeared from textbooks, the government recently explained that it had left him out inadvertently and promised to put the name back in later gender identity disorder. Liberal-minded locals think the government did it on purpose, arguing that it is not something one can forget fraction to decimal conversion chart. Nehru was removed because he was from a rival party, they said.

More problematic is state governments actively spreading a Hindu nationalistic ideology — as if declaring that if a person is not a Hindu, he or she is not an Indian. The BJP-led governments of Rajasthan and Maharashtra are both rushing to add Hindu nationalistic lines to their textbooks to keep in step with Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a major Hindu nationalist BJP support group.

Professor Apoorvanand Jha of the University of Delhi is furious about the renaming of the Indus civilization funny jokes for kids to tell at school. The Rajasthan government changed the name based on an epic in which a Hindu mythical figure made a pilgrimage to a riverbank along the Indus River. But Jha said that this has not been scientifically proven us to inr exchange rate. Describing a Hindu myth as a historical fact is an attempt to invent history, he argued. Jha and educational experts in the state have set up a volunteer group and called on the government to fundamentally revise the textbooks pre market us stock futures. But whether the government will accept such a request is anyone’s guess.

Sudha Varma, a mother of a 9-year-old child in a Mumbai slum, is concerned about the altered mention of the constitution. If such a change appears in textbooks, parents may also be misled, she said usd inr conversion. Although she is a Hindu, there are many Muslims living in the city. For the 35-year-old mother, the 1993 communal riot between Hindus and Muslims — the religious killings that were featured in the film "Slumdog Millionaire" — is a not-so-distant, gruesome past.

Textbooks began leaning toward the right more than a decade ago in Gujarat, a western state known for strong economic growth under Modi’s 13-year leadership as state head. A book called "Textbook Regimes," on a comparative study of textbooks from five Indian states, was published in 2010 by Nirantar, a think tank for gender and educational issues binary list. It says Gujarat was "proudly proclaimed by the BJP as the ‘laboratory of Hindutva’ (Hindu nationalism)." In Gujarat, the group argued, textbooks often confuse myths and historical facts, and encourage belligerent nationalism.

For the BJP, which is still dominant in Gujarat, the experiment seems to have succeeded future stock market returns. The textbook revisions in Rajasthan, which returned to BJP rule in 2013, and Maharashtra, where the BJP seized power in 2014, were likely made with a similar goal in mind.

What kind of society do the BJP and RSS hope to establish? In an interview, Ram Madhav, an RSS official and the BJP’s national general secretary, appeared to take for granted a society that is built around Hindus. While he showed some tolerance toward other religions, if ostensibly, he also underscored the importance of Hinduism. He said, "Over 80% of [the] people still follow Hinduism," and "Hinduism is a very important, large culture pound to usd. For many, it is the core culture of the country." According to a social activist, who used to be a follower of RSS, "The RSS has been teaching people [that] the reason why India was defeated and China won in terms of power of nation is the concept of ‘Ahinsa’ (non-violence), which [Mahatma] Gandhi and Nehru adopted."

With its victory in local elections in the eastern state of Assam in April and May, the BJP now controls over a third of the country. A bigger BJP presence would stabilize the Modi administration and help implement economic policies. Foreign companies and governments investing in India also welcome the BJP’s rise. However, a stronger BJP would lead to the expansion of the RSS’s Hindu nationalism, which in turn increases social unrest. But, many might think on the whole the BJP’s rise will do more good than harm to the country.

Still, of various Hindu nationalistic actions in India in recent times, the textbook revisions, effectively led by RSS, are far stronger than, say, state-level beef bans introduced last year. Such nationalistic behavior could create a huge pitfall which Japan, the U.S. and European nations now cozying up to India on both the economic and the security fronts could suddenly plunge into. Let us not forget that a revised social studies textbook in high schools in Rajasthan now has a chapter glorifying the great icon of exclusive nationalism — Adolf Hitler.

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