Iter – wikipedia


ITER ( International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and is also Latin for “the way”) is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world’s largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment. Msn news canada It is an experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor that is being built next to the Cadarache facility in Saint-Paul-lès-Durance, south of France. Usd in inr [1]

The ITER project aims to make the long-awaited transition from experimental studies of plasma physics to full-scale electricity-producing fusion power stations. Aud to usd news The ITER fusion reactor has been designed to produce 500 megawatts of output power for several seconds while needing 50 megawatts to operate.

The millionaire matchmaker [2] Thereby the machine aims to demonstrate the principle of producing more energy from the fusion process than is used to initiate it, something that has not yet been achieved in any fusion reactor.

The project is funded and run by seven member entities—the European Union, India, Japan, China, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Hex editor download The EU, as host party for the ITER complex, is contributing about 45 percent of the cost, with the other six parties contributing approximately 9 percent each. What is usd currency [3] [4] [5]

Construction of the ITER Tokamak complex started in 2013 [6] and the building costs are now over US$14 billion as of June 2015. Usd rub [7] The facility is expected to finish its construction phase in 2019 and will start commissioning the reactor that same year and initiate plasma experiments in 2020 with full deuterium– tritium fusion experiments starting in 2027. Dollar pound exchange rate forecast [8] [9] If ITER becomes operational, it will become the largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment in use, surpassing the Joint European Torus. Binary to hex converter The first commercial demonstration fusion power station, named DEMO, is proposed to follow on from the ITER project. Live charts uk [10]

Fusion power has the potential to provide sufficient energy to satisfy mounting demand, and to do so sustainably, with a relatively small impact on the environment.

Nuclear fusion has many potential attractions. Future of marketing 2016 Firstly, its hydrogen isotope fuels are relatively abundant – one of the necessary isotopes, deuterium, can be extracted from seawater, while the other fuel, tritium, would be bred from a lithium blanket using neutrons produced in the fusion reaction itself. Euro fx [11] Furthermore, a fusion reactor would produce virtually no CO 2 or atmospheric pollutants, and its other radioactive waste products would be very short-lived compared to those produced by conventional nuclear reactors.

On 21 November 2006, the seven participants formally agreed to fund the creation of a nuclear fusion reactor. Python tutorial google [12] The program is anticipated to last for 30 years – 10 for construction, and 20 of operation. Usd to inr forecast 2016 ITER was originally expected to cost approximately €5billion, but the rising price of raw materials and changes to the initial design have seen that amount almost triple to €13billion. Usa today puzzles [7] The reactor is expected to take 10 years to build with completion scheduled for 2019. Euro to aud conversion [13] Site preparation has begun in Cadarache, France, and procurement of large components has started. 45 usd [14]

ITER is designed to produce approximately 500 MW of fusion power sustained for up to 1,000 seconds [15] (compared to JET’s peak of 16 MW for less than a second) by the fusion of about 0.5 g of deuterium/ tritium mixture in its approximately 840 m 3 reactor chamber. Cny to usd chart Although ITER is expected to produce (in the form of heat) 10 times more energy than the amount consumed to heat up the plasma to fusion temperatures, the generated heat will not be used to generate any electricity. Usd cad forecast today [16]

ITER was originally an acronym for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, but that title was eventually dropped due to the negative popular connotations of the word ” thermonuclear”, especially when used in conjunction with ” experimental”. Us stock market futures “Iter” also means “journey”, “direction” or “way” in Latin, [17] reflecting ITER’s potential role in harnessing nuclear fusion as a peaceful power source. Usd to sar converter Organization history [ edit ]

ITER began in 1985 as a Reagan–Gorbachev [18] [19] initiative [19] [20] with the equal participation of the Soviet Union, the European Union (through European Atomic Energy Community), the United States, and Japan through the 1988–1998 initial design phases. Usd chf exchange rate Preparations for the first Gorbachev-Reagan Summit showed that there were no tangible agreements in the works for the summit.

One energy research project, however, was being considered quietly by two physicists, Alvin Trivelpiece and Evgeny Velikhov. Binary to text The project involved collaboration on the next phase of magnetic fusion research — the construction of a demonstration model. Binary addition At the time, magnetic fusion research was ongoing in Japan, Europe, the Soviet Union and the US. Bloomberg world markets futures Velikhov and Trivelpiece believed that taking the next step in fusion research would be beyond the budget of any of the key nations and that collaboration would be useful internationally.

A major bureaucratic fight erupted in the US government over the project. Msn news One argument against collaboration was that the Soviets would use it to steal US technology and know-how. Nyse futures market A second was symbolic — the Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov was in internal exile and the US was pushing the Soviet Union on its human rights record. Famous quotes about love and life The United States National Security Council convened a meeting under the direction of William Flynn Martin that resulted in a consensus that the US should go forward with the project.

Martin and Velikhov concluded the agreement that was agreed at the summit and announced in the last paragraph of this historic summit meeting, “… Stock market futures today The two leaders emphasized the potential importance of the work aimed at utilizing controlled thermonuclear fusion for peaceful purposes and, in this connection, advocated the widest practicable development of international cooperation in obtaining this source of energy, which is essentially inexhaustible, for the benefit for all mankind.” [21]

Conceptual and engineering design phases carried out under the auspices of the IAEA led to an acceptable, detailed design in 2001, underpinned by US$650 million worth of research and development by the “ITER Parties” to establish its practical feasibility. Oil meaning in the bible [ citation needed] These parties, namely EU, Japan, Russian Federation (replacing the Soviet Union), and United States (which opted out of the project in 1999 and returned in 2003), were joined in negotiations by China, South Korea, and Canada (who then terminated its participation at the end of 2003). Pregnancy quiz boy or girl India officially became part of ITER on December 2005.

On 28 June 2005, it was officially announced that ITER would be built in the European Union in Southern France. How to code in binary The negotiations that led to the decision ended in a compromise between the EU and Japan, in that Japan was promised 20% of the research staff on the French location of ITER, as well as the head of the administrative body of ITER. Binary operation In addition, another research facility for the project will be built in Japan, and the European Union has agreed to contribute about 50% of the costs of this institution. Binary to hexadecimal chart [22]

On 21 November 2006, an international consortium signed a formal agreement to build the reactor. Usd to kwd [23] On 24 September 2007, the People’s Republic of China became the seventh party to deposit the ITER Agreement to the IAEA. Ascii table binary Finally, on 24 October 2007, the ITER Agreement entered into force and the ITER Organization legally came into existence. What is futures in stock market Objectives [ edit ]

In 1978, the EC, Japan, United States, and USSR joined in the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) Workshop, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), to assess the readiness of magnetic fusion to move forward to the experimental power reactor (EPR) stage, to identify the additional R&D that must be undertaken, and to define the characteristics of such an EPR by means of a conceptual design.

Hundreds of fusion scientists and engineers in each participating country took part in a detailed assessment of the then present status of the tokamak confinement concept vis-a-vis the requirements of an EPR, identified the required R&D by early 1980, and produced a conceptual design by mid-1981.

• 1985. Silver chart history At the Geneva summit meeting in 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev suggested to Ronald Reagan that the two countries jointly undertake the construction of a tokamak EPR as proposed by the INTOR Workshop. Stock market futures today bloomberg The ITER project was initiated in 1988. Dollar to pound exchange rate [25] [26]

• 2006. Stock market dow futures The ITER project was formally agreed to and funded with a cost estimate of €10 billion ($12.8 billion) projecting the start of construction in 2008 and completion a decade later. Conversion rate us to canada [12]

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