Materials _ free full-text _ properties of residue from olive oil extraction as a raw material for sustainable construction materials. part i_ physical properties _ html


Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. 1 rmb to usd Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. Today’s exchange rate usd to cad One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. Binary to text converter online This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy.

Euro to dollar exchange rate 2015 The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Love quotes for girlfriend Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Chf usd bloomberg Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

It is also important to stress that new European regulations strongly favor the use of materials offering better thermal and acoustic characteristics. Gender roles articles This has had a great impact on the sector, given that only bricks with high-density parameters are permitted, meaning an increase in thickness parameters in order to obtain optimal insulation values. Funny quotes and sayings for facebook It is therefore urgent that the structural ceramic sector incorporates acoustic and thermal insulating criteria when designing and manufacturing new products. Exchange rate usd to malawi kwacha The insulation and acoustic capacity of ceramic material will depend on the balance between porosity and elasticity modulus, although pore size, geometry, and orientation are also important. Convert usd to inr In consideration of the fact that the thermal and acoustic insulating capacity of a material therefore depends largely on its porosity, the development of materials with controlled porosity has become an area of great interest for the construction industry [ 5].

Organic residues are widely used as pore-forming agents in the ceramic industry [ 6, 7, 8, 9]. Usa today sports page For many years now, construction materials have been recipients of residues from other industrial sectors, for example: petrochemical residues, sewage sludge ash from MSW (municipal solid waste), residues from the paper and beer industries, agricultural residues, among others. Us to inr exchange rate today [ 10, 11]. Euro to pound conversion rate The use of residues offers a number of advantages: the optimization of the properties of the ceramic products, as well as lower costs and a solution to the environmental problem caused by disposing of the residues in landfill sites. Usd to rmb exchange rate Furthermore, their use could help obtain green building certifications, given that these certifications favor products containing 10%–20% of recycled material [ 12, 13], and would also help obtain the certification in the European Union Ecolabel environmental labeling system (Regulation (EC) No. Stock market today futures 66/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 on the EU Ecolabel). Dollar exchange rate In this respect, the ceramic and cement industries feature manufacturing processes that offer a viable valorization of organic and inorganic residues [ 14, 15]. Pound to euro exchange rate today This valorization can be obtained by using the heating value from the combustion process and/or by adding the residue to the inner structure of the materials so that it becomes part of its matrix and, therefore, an inert element [ 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26].

Figure 7c shows the bulk density test results. Gold forecast 2020 As can be expected, the trend in the series of samples is a decrease in bulk density as the percentage of residue in the samples increases, due to greater loss of organic matter in firing combustion, which implies an increase of total porosity of the material. Usd cad forecast The bulk density varies, starting at the higher value of 1855 kg/m 3 for pieces containing 0%, until the lower value of 1431 kg/m 3 for pieces coded ALP10, both sintered at 1050 °C. Love quotes from the bible This represents a bulk density reduction of 22.86% in pieces at this temperature. Usd eur converter At the three sintering temperatures tested, results show bulk density values that are very close numerically in samples containing a certain percentage of residue weight. Aus usd It can therefore be concluded that the firing temperature does not have a significant effect on the final bulk density of the pieces.

The open porosity results of Table 4 show that the quantity of residue added to the mixture is directly proportional to the quantity of pores obtained in the ceramic material. Gbp usd fx rate If ceramic pieces contain greater quantities of wet pomace, the open porosity in their matrix increases, reaching the maximum value of 46% in the samples coded ALP10 and sintered at 1050 °C. Usd to british pound converter As expected, the lowest level of open porosity is found in pieces without residue. Exchange rate us canada As they do not have an alternative source of organic matter provided by the residue, the level of porosity formed in the interior is not greater than that derived from the composition of the mixture of clays. Market futures live The greater increase of open porosity is found in the series sintered at 1050 °C, with an increase of about 67% with regard to the initial value.

A numeric model proposed by Aouba et al. Oil meaning in bible (2016) [ 39] was tested in order to predict compressive strength of clay samples that incorporate organic residue. Iqd to usd exchange rate This method proposes the calculation of the parameter “a” to determine the adjustment between the theoretical data of the model and the experimental data. Gold usd This calculation was made due to the importance of mechanical properties in the investigated samples, given that they are to be used as construction materials. Crude oil futures marketwatch The development of numeric models to predict the compressive strength of clay bricks should also be of interest to manufacturers, who can then study the possibility of using waste while meeting the required specifications of their products. Python binary This is a normalized function that associates compressive strength of each sample with the percentage of organic matter added.

From the results obtained in this study, it was determined that bricks produced with this type of waste obtained from olive oil production by means of the two-phase extraction process indicate the potential to manufacture high-quality materials. World markets futures This possibility is beneficial not only from an economic point of view, as it can lead to savings for companies when buying raw material, but also from an environmental perspective, given that it entails the elimination of waste that is currently an unresolved problem and leads to a damaging, physical-chemical impact on the environment, a situation that needs to be solved in an efficient manner. Ringgit to usd converter The experimental results obtained during this research allow us to establish that the material characterization carried out can be used to optimize construction features and benefits of the fired clay ceramic pieces.

Adding incremental quantities of wet pomace to the clay body produces significant reductions in the bulk density and increases open porosity, which can lead to changes in the properties, such as thermal conductivity, which determines the thermal insulation capacity of the materials. 1 usd to thb With regard to the results obtained from the mechanical property studied, it was established that compressive strength is reduced when the proportion of wet pomace in the ceramic pieces is increased. 1 usd in euro However, only the values for the pieces sintered at 1050 °C and containing 10% wet pomace fail to comply with the AENOR standard. Convert rmb to usd Considering higher compressive strength specifications and a lower sintering temperature, which result in the need for less working energy in the furnace, it can be concluded that the pieces with 3 wt % wet pomace and sintered at 850 °C can be considered the best quality bricks. Nis to usd However, pieces with residue values of 7% and 10%, and sintered at 850 °C, showed a compressive strength value higher than the limit value required by the certification body.

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