Medical tourism – reversing traditional trends, quality and innovation in developing countries


Medical tourism refers to people who travel overseas for obtaining treatment. Usd to hkd exchange rate history In the past, it referred to (wealthy/privileged) patients from developing countries who visited medical centres in industrialized countries to get treatment not available at home.

However, the situation has since reversed, in certain cases dramatically.

1 usd to mxn Medical tourism now typically refers to patients from industrialized countries who travel to poorer countries for lower priced, or more quickly available (and in some cases, superior) treatment. How to use binary code Top medical tourist destinations in this respect include India and Thailand as well as Costa Rica, Mexico and the Gulf.

Some studies do not consider medical tourism to include cosmetic and wellness tourism – with dental treatment also viewed as a cosmetic procedure. Usd to thb exchange rate This, larger group is often referred to as health tourism.

Market revenues for a major medical tourism destination, Thailand, include a relatively large number of cosmetic surgery procedures. Dollar to rupee exchange rate today This segment also includes a multitude of places in south America, with the industry’s maturity fed by bustling local demand. Computer binary code For example, according to the Sociedad Boliviana de Cirugia Plastica y Reconstructiva’, over 70percent of middle and upper class women in the country have had plastic surgery.

Consultants McKinsey estimated 180,000 medical tourists were treated at Indian facilities in 2004 (up from 10,000 just five years earlier). Aud conversion to usd Arrivals have since been rising sharply and are estimated to have reached 250,000 in 2012, contributing 3 billion USD in revenues. Mxn to usd exchange rate This is effectively about 30percent of the global market, estimated for the year at 10.5 billion USD by Transparency Market Research.

India has proven to be a preferred destination for US and UK patients, in particular, because of the use of English in most professional interactions, as well as the fact that both countries have a large number of Indian-origin physicians. Biliary duct system Indeed, the US government’s top medic, the Surgeon General, is Vivek Hallegere Murthy, a 40-year old Indian.

India stands out as an interesting destination in another respect. Aud to usd chart Its massive generic drugs industry provides post-operative medicinal treatment at prices well below the West.

Key factors driving medical tourism from the West to developing countries include the high cost of healthcare and increasing waiting times for certain procedures. The millionaire tv show Insurance in several countries often does not cover 100percent of the costs of common age-related requirements such as a knee or hip replacement, or limits the choice of the prosthetics, or the surgeon and facility.

Accreditation of top hospitals in medical tourism destinations has also fuelled demand. Hex converter to text The oldest international accrediting body is Accreditation Canada, which has accredited hospitals in about a dozen countries.

The best known accreditation group, however, is Joint Commission International (JCI) in the US. Usa today sports JCI was set up in 1994 to provide international clients education and consulting services, and several international hospitals now see accreditation as a way to attract American patients. Binary star JCI is an independent private, not-for-profit organization that seeks to develop nationally and internationally recognized procedures to help improve patient care and safety. Aud usd It advises hospitals to meet standards for patient care and then accredits hospitals meeting the standards.

A British scheme, QHA Trent Accreditation, is an active independent holistic accreditation scheme. Dow futures marketwatch Another is, which monitors success metrics and standards of almost 500,000 medical clinics worldwide.

Increasingly, hospitals are looking towards dual international accreditation, perhaps having both JCI to cover potential US clientele, and Accreditation Canada or QHA Trent for Canadian and British patients.

Practically all surgery procedures performed in medical tourism destinations cost a fraction of what they do in industrialized countries. Usd to inr conversion calculator For example, while a liver transplant in the US costs about 300,000 USD ( Euro 280,000), the figure in India is 50,000 USD ( Euro 47,000). Commodity meaning Open heart surgery in India costs between 3,000 ( Euro 2,800) and 10,000 USD ( Euro 9,400), compared to 70,000 USD ( Euro 65,500) in the UK and 150,000 USD ( Euro 140,000) in the US.

Such figures acquire added value when one reviews the conclusions of a Harvard Business School (HBS) study in November 2013, comparing data on angioplasty in the US versus India. Today’s conversion rate usd to inr The study found that one in 200 US angioplasty patients required emergency surgery, with half of them dying, while only two of 40,000 angioplasty patients at India’s CARE Hospitals required emergency surgery, with just one death in the OR since the hospital’s inception in 1997.

The HBS study also studied other Indian hospitals and interventions, finding them to be on par or better than their US counterparts – for example, Apollo Hospitals with knee, coronary and prostate surgery as well as for infections related to the operating theatre and catheters, Narayana for coronary artery bypass procedures, Deccan for peritoneal dialysis and Aravind for ophthalmology.

The HBS review noted India was not simply an improver but an innovator too, for example Indian doctors pioneered the beating-heart method of surgery, where they operate without shutting patients’ hearts down via a heart-lung machine, leading to fewer complications, shorter hospital stays and quicker recovery.

While much attention remains on Western medical tourists, one of the fastest growing market segments consists of patients within the Third World, who travel to more advanced developing countries. Understanding futures markets pdf India again is at the top of the list. Flower tattoo sleeve In early Dec 2016 / Jan 2017, for instance, it was announced that Iman Abdulati, a 36-year old woman weighing half a tonne, was to be flown to India from her home in Egypt for bariatric surgery.

Pakistani patients with severe conditions requiring top-notch treatment are a routine media fixture in India. Chicken stock meaning in urdu For example, in September 2016, Pakistan’s Express Tribune’ featured the case of Abdul Basit, an 11-year old boy who had been suffering from the rare condition known as Crigler-Najjar syndrome and went for a liver transplant to India. Usd eur Two years previously, after complications, the wife of former Afghan President Hamid Karzai gave birth to a girl at Fortis Hospital in New Delhi.

In August 2016, The Diplomat’ reported India had emerged as one of the fastest growing global healthcare destinations, particularly for patients from conflict countries like Afghanistan, Iraq, Yemen, Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and Somalia, attracting close to 400,000 foreign patients a year, half from war-ravaged countries.

The selection of India as preferred medical tourism destination is being officially sanctioned. Euro to pound exchange rate graph In 2004, BBC News’ reported that “India was chosen as the place” for sending sick patients from Tanzania unable to be treated at home, after the Tanzanian government “did a comparative analysis of health facilities in South Africa, India and western European countries.” In 2007, Companion Global Healthcare teamed up with hospitals in India (as well as Thailand and Singapore).

Due to a variety of reasons, the other Asian behemoth, China, has a much less mature medical tourism sector. Pound euro forecast 2016 WHO figures show hospital bed densities far lower in India, at just 9 per 10,000 people (making a total of roughly 1 million beds) compared to 42 in China (about 5 million). Gold price forecast 2020 However, the higher share of private beds in India (40percent against 6.5percent in China) means that India has slightly more private beds – about 400,000, against China’s 325,000.

More than anything, India’s lead over China in medical tourism symbolises its top-down approach to healthcare, in contrast to China’s bottom-up one which first aims at providing top quality healthcare to local Chinese. Usd football As a result, China does not provide good healthcare for its middle and upper class. Us market futures today For Britain’s Guardian’, poor rural Chinese were curiously’ better off than their city cousins.’ The Guardian’ contrasted this with India, where “many city-based healthcare facilities are excellent….” This higher-end focus provides India with more medical tourists than China.

There are now at least a dozen major private hospital groups in India. Dollar to pound exchange rate history Leading groups (with 20-50 facilities, and 2,500-8,000 beds) include Apollo, Max Healthcare, Fortis, Escorts Healthcare, Wockhardt and the Manipal Group. Usd cad exchange rate Many of the above (as well as newcomers from cash-rich Indian conglomerates such as Reliance, the Hindujas, Sahara and ITC) are also pursuing the new concept of Medicities, involving suburban developments dedicated wholly to integrated hospital facilities.

The procurement budget of such groups is not insignificant. Marketing in the future Apollo’s annual spending on medical equipment, for example, has been close to 200 million USD in recent years. Used book stores phoenix Such budgets allows cash-rich Indian hospitals to procure state-of-the-art equipment – from Da Vinci robots and stereotactic laser surgery to wide-bore 3T Silent Scan MRIs.

US hospitals are at the forefront of partnerships in the Gulf. Stock value history One of the key reasons was the difficulty for medical tourists from the region to obtain US visas after 9/11, according to the American Hospital Association.

Key US partners of Gulf hospitals include Johns Hopkins Medicine, which has an agreement since 2006 to partner the General Health Authority for Health Services in the UAE. Jpy usd forecast It also manages the 400-plus bed Tawam Hospital in Abu Dhabi and an affiliated centre offering state-of-the-art molecular imaging services. Nonbinary definition Johns Hopkins also has alliances with King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Saudi Arabia.

Another example is the Cleveland Clinic, which is affiliated with the International Medical Centre in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and is a strategic partner at the 360-bed, multi-specialty Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi Hospital in the UAE.

Elsewhere in the UAE, Methodist International manages the operations of Burj Dubai Medical Centre as well as clinics in Dubai, while Partners Harvard Medical International is a key strategic collaborator with Dubai Healthcare City (which explicitly seeks to attract foreign medical tourists).

Many of these alliances are increasing their focus on education and training. 1 sgd to 1 usd For example, the Partners-Dubai Healthcare City has added a high profile unit called Harvard Medical School Dubai Center Institute for Postgraduate Education and Research, while in 2014 Johns Hopkins signed a partnership with oil major Aramco to provide medical education and training in Saudi Arabia.

Qatar, too, has sought US partners. Binary definition computer The Weill Cornell Medical College was in fact one of the earliest ventures, established in 2001 as a partnership between Cornell University and the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development. Binary code translator to text It aims to provide medical education and cutting-edge research.

Ironically, the focus on training might hit a traditional source of physicians in the Gulf especially hard, namely Indians who would be replaced by skilled locals.