Prediction of hexaconazole concentration in the top most layer of oil palm plantation soil using exploratory data analysis (eda)


Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR). Funny quotes This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Cnn money stock market futures Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Euro today exchange rate Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil.

Exchange rate usd rmb In the present paper, a new approach that can be used to predict the concentration of pesticides in the soil is proposed. Us futures markets The statistical analysis revealed that the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques would be appropriate in this study. British pound us dollar exchange rate The EDA techniques were used to fit a robust resistant model and predict the concentration of the residue in the topmost layer of the soil.

Citation: Maznah Z, Halimah M, Shitan M, Kumar Karmokar P, Najwa S (2017) Prediction of Hexaconazole Concentration in the Top Most Layer of Oil Palm Plantation Soil Using Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA). Aud usd bloomberg PLoS ONE 12(1):

Copyright: © 2017 Maznah et al. Binary converter This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Oil palm is the most important agricultural sector in Malaysia and it is contributing significantly to the economy of the country. Usd yen exchange rate In 2015, the total production of crude palm oil (CPO) recorded was 19,961,581 tons as higher compared in 2014 was 19,667,016 tons [ 1]. Cool pictures of cars In order to produce this large volume of quality oil products, the concerned authorities such as the palm oil producers need to be careful about their production of palm oil. Us dollar exchange rate in india today The application of chemicals such as fertilizers for nutrient requirements and pesticides for crop protection on oil palm is necessary in this regard. Binary definition music The use of pesticides is mainly for controlling weeds, pest, and fungus. The binary box Among the pesticides, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, endosulfan, fluroxypyr-MHE, chlorpyrifos, thiram, hexaconazole, etc. Exchange rate usd to euro are notable and several studies have been carried out to investigate their behaviours [ 2– 5].

Nowadays, the basal stem rot (BSR) which is caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease of oil palm in Malaysia. Silver oz price The cases of BSR are reported in Johor, Negeri Sembilan and Malacca in Malaysia [ 6– 7]. Dow market futures The cases of BSR have also been reported in other countries like Africa, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and Thailand [ 8]. Convert to binary number This disease causes the death of the oil palm trees in more than 80% cases midway through their economic life [ 9]. Social media is the future of marketing The primary infection of oil palms by the species of Ganoderma is due to the direct contact of living roots with colonized debris [ 10]. Binary star system Among the different techniques, the best approach to control this disease consists of the removal of infected palms, soil mounding, fungicide treatment or a combination of these methods. Rupiah to usd The applications of chemical treatments are considered as the immediate short-term control measures. Binary converter calculator The use of this systemic fungicide, together with an appropriate technique of application may help to reduce the progress of the BSR [ 11]. Euro dollar exchange rate today Hexaconazole is one of the fungicides which can be used against the Ganoderma species [ 5, 10– 11] and applied by the soil drenching method. Usd inr exchange rate It will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil (after treatment) with respect to time.

The term Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) was introduced by John W. Market futures cnn money Tukey who had shown how simple graphical and qualitative techniques can be used to open-mindedly explore data. Usd cny chart The EDA can help to improve the results of statistical hypothesis testing by forcing one to look at unbiased data before formulating hypotheses which are subsequently tested using the conventional statistic (confirmatory data analysis) [ 12]. Exchange rate us canadian dollar EDA is a specific traditional data analysis tool was introduced by John Tukey and his associates in the early 1960s while Behrens [ 13] discussed on the philosophical underpinning and general heuristics of it. 100 aud to usd The EDA typically begins by examining each variable individually, combing through the data, checking the shapes of distributions and looking for outliers and rogue values. Gold price in usa per ounce Then, the exploratory data analyst turns to look at relationships between pairs of variables and finally considers multivariate relationships [ 14].

It has been over 37 years since the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) was introduced. Pound to usd conversion Since that time, a number of publications integrating the EDA into the multidiscipline of science have been published [ 15– 18]. Stock meaning in urdu Numerous publications discussing on the environmental behaviour of pollutant and agrochemical have been studied. Futures market hours of operation The agricultural scientists routinely manage sizeable amounts of scientific data originating from the agricultural field [ 3– 5], lab experimentation [ 19– 20], observation [ 21– 22], computer models [ 23– 24], and simulations [ 25– 26].

However, the exploitation of EDA in environmental pollution such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and air pollution has never been reported. Stock market definitions terms The prediction of concentrations of a pesticide in the soil, surface water, and ground water often involved the use of mathematical simulation models such as VARLEACH [ 27– 28], PESTLA [ 29], PELMO [ 30] and LEACHP [ 31]. Equity meaning in real estate The present paper reports a field study conducted in order to determine and predict the hexaconazole concentration in the real environment conditions in the top most layer of the soil. E mini dow trading hours Pesticide degradation in the field can then be predicted on the basis of these parameters and actual or predicted on-site temperature and moisture data. Binary decision tree Therefore, we decided to take different approaches based on the EDA as an alternative. Commodity futures market We started our analysis with the data obtained from the field experiment and transformed the data to construct the statistical model.

For any given data set, traditional statistical methods like the Method of Least Squares can be used to obtain parameter estimates where the unknown parameters are estimated by minimizing the sum of the residual squares. Hockey blackhawks However, the traditional least square estimators are based on some assumptions. Pound exchange rate history If the data violates some of the assumptions, then the estimates and results can be misleading. Code translator Although the method of least squares often gives optimal estimates of the unknown parameters, it is very sensitive to the outliers and influential observations. Mortgage meaning dictionary Outliers can sometimes be a serious problem and consequently the result can mislead the prediction and validation of the fitted model. Usd to nzd converter In such a case, some distributional assumptions must be made. Us to rmb rate Usually, it is assumed that the errors are normally distributed with zero mean and constant variance. Usd to inr exchange rate western union The statistical inference based on the normality assumption is known to be vulnerable to outliers [ 32]. Binary search algorithm example Secondly, it is assumed that the errors are uncorrelated and it would also be desirable to have a good number of observations, though not absolutely necessary.

Various diagnostic checking (behaviour of residuals) of the fitted models are seen in the literature with the help of which validation of a fitted model should be judged. Equity finance group The diagnostic plots are effective tools for checking the adequacy of data set to the fitted regression models. Video editor windows 10 free Residuals are assumed to be independent of the fitted values, meaning that the correlation between residuals and fitted values should be zero.

Subsequently, the effect of violation of the assumptions for the study data sets will be shown. Binary arithmetic In particular, the data sets are not normally distributed and diagnostic analysis revealed the poorly fitted models by traditional statistical methods. Usd inr rate live Furthermore, each data set comprised of eight observations only.

Hence, it is useful to search an alternative procedure where this small number of data points could be modelled properly. Ringgit to usd exchange rate The alternative method suggested is a resistant fit after straightening out the plot. Binary to number Details about straightening out plots and fitting resistant lines can be found in several references [ 33– 35]. Euro dollar exchange rate bloomberg A resistant fit is a tool of EDA which does not rely too much on assumptions and is robust. Usd to rm First, one should check the half-slope ratio and if this ratio is not approximately 1 then a transformation is required. Stock market futures tomorrow Usually, the Ladder of Powers is used for re-expressing the data. Live quotes commodity futures market Once, the half-slope ratio is reasonably close to 1, and then a linear resistant fit can be done.

The residual versus fitted plot is shown in the top panel in Fig 4. Gold price history chart The observation numbers 6 and 8 may be suspected as the potential outliers from the figure. Us stock market hours The Q-Q Normality plot as shown in the middle panel in Fig 4 identified that the same observations were somewhat far from the straight line indicating that these points may be the source of violation of normality assumption. Weizmann forex ltd An observation with an extreme value of a predictor variable is known as a high leverage point and it has an unusually large effect on the estimated regression coefficients. Usd vs aud forecast If the model is fitted in the presence of such observations, it may mislead the whole inference. Hex code The plot of the residuals versus leverage shown in the bottom panel of Fig 2 indicates that observation 8 was outside the boundary line while observation 6 was close to the boundary line. The millionaire matchmaker dina lohan & peter marc jacobson This means that the data set had some leverage value problems, also.

Since it was shown that the data sets were not normally distributed and diagnostic analysis revealed the presence of outliers together with the leverage problems, the traditional least square regression methods may not be suitable to analyse this data set.

Hence, as an alternative, the EDA techniques named as the resistant fit were used in this study after straightening out the plot. Us dollar to british pound exchange rate For an appropriate resistant fitted model, the examination of the half-slope ratio is very essential. Yen to usd exchange rate The half-slope ratio for this data set was found 0.596 which is not close to 1, indicating that the data was not linear. The futures market explained Hence, some sort of transformation was required for this data set. World stock market futures live A log e transformation for the concentration was chosen later and the half-slope ratio was recalculated and it was found to be 0.929 which is reasonably close to 1 and hence, the fitted resistant line is,

Statistical models were constructed for hexaconazole concentration for the topmost layer of the soil, both for the single and double dosages. Pln to usd Transformations and fitted resistant lines were applied for these dosages. Gpb to usd The usefulness of these models are that they are simple, robust and do not rely on too many assumptions. Hkd to usd chart The predicted values and intervals for both single and double dosages were also constructed and it was found that EDA can serve as a guide in predicting the concentration of hexaconazole after treatment. Funny jokes for kids The advantages of using these prediction models are that it will save the time and effort in collecting field samples, cost of manpower and chemicals and indicate sampling interval after treatment. Cnn stock market futures As these models were developed with only eight observations, it can be improved gradually if more observations are available. Usd inr exchange rate live The inclusion of some other important variables like rainfall, preferential flow, microorganisms, etc. Hex to binary converter online can also be considered in the future.