Quantification of abdominal fat in obese and healthy adolescents using 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging and free software for image analysis

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Citation: Eloi JC, Epifanio M, de Gonçalves MM, Pellicioli A, Vieira PFG, Dias HB, et al. Usd to euro graph (2017) Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis. Usd to inr exchange rate today PLoS ONE 12(1):

Copyright: © 2017 Eloi et al. Exchange rate cny to usd This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The current study was funded by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) grant, resulted of Notice Universal 14/2012 with grant equivalent to US D: 13,000.

The prevalence of childhood obesity has become a major public health issue around the world [ 1, 2] Obesity is often associated with metabolic syndrome, which confers an increased risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood [ 3– 5]. Inr to usd conversion rate today Previous studies have shown that central obesity, an indicator of visceral adiposity, is correlated with all the components of metabolic syndrome, namely insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension [ 6, 7].

WC (waist circumference) is a good predictor of abdominal adiposity; however, it does not allow for quantification of adipose tissue nor can it distinguish between visceral and subcutaneous fat. Convert usd to euro calculator The accurate assessment of visceral fat is of utmost clinical importance, given its association with metabolic syndrome components, which in turn, contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. Premarket stock futures cnn Several techniques are available to measure central adiposity [ 8– 10]. Gold manufacturing While computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging modality to measure abdominal fat, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a similar accuracy [ 11]. 1 usd to sbd An advantage of MRI is the absence of exposure to ionizing radiation, a limitation that restricts the use of CT in children and adolescents.


Non binary gender quiz In addition, the MRI approach to quantifying abdominal adiposity is efficient, allowing for image aqcuisition within 5 minutes.

One aspect that has prevented the use of both CT and MRI is the need for expensive image analysis software in the quantification of abdominal fat [ 12, 13]. Gender spectrum However, Irving et al [ 14] have shown that a free software, NIH Image J, can reliably measure adipose tissue. Joy news Even though that study was focused on CT, tone can expect similar results from the analysis of magnetic resonance images obtained using the same software.

Regarding MRI studies of abdominal fat, most have employed equipment with field strength of 1.5 Tesla (T) [ 11, 12, 15]. Gold price today Studies using MRI 3T in adults have shown good accuracy for the quantification of abdominal fat [ 11]. What is a futures market However, it is important to determine whether 3T MRI has good performance for evaluation of abdominal fat of obese adolescents.

Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat of adolescents using 3T MRI with the free software and to correlate these findings with anthropometric variables and laboratory parameters that are reflective of metabolic dysregulation.

This prospective, cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2013 and October 2014 and included 57 Caucasian adolescents aged 16–18 years. Math puzzles printable The study was approved the Research Ethics Committee at our university hospital. Investing futures market Sample size was calculated as 23 participants in each group using the PEPI 4.0 software for a significance level of 5%, power of 90%, and a minimum of correlation coefficient 0.5 in BMI association with visceral fat as Kelly et al study.

Exclusion criteria were chronic diseases, hepatorenal disease, and use of hepatotoxic drugs, corticosteroids, or immune suppressants that could promote fat storage in the liver.

The adolescents were randomly selected from a cohort participating in a population study assessing longevity, which was performed in computer system. Binary solver An informed consent form was signed by all participants or by their guardians. Dollar euro forecast Included subjects were subsequently divided into two groups: Group A included 33 healthy participants and Group B included 24 overweight/obese participants (2 overweight, 22 obese). Us canadian dollar exchange rate All underwent anthropometric measurements, laboratory testing, and abdominal MRI measurements.

In this study we were able to show that the use of MRI 3.0 Tesla with the free software package Image J allows for simple, efficient and semi-automatic quantification of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in a cohort of lean and overweight adolescents. What is futures and options in stock market with examples Once again it was shown that BMI did not correlate with measures of abdominal adiposity, whereas WC correlated with both visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue. Futures markets today The importance of quantifying visceral fat particularly of overweight and obese subjects was shown again in this study, as visceral adiposity correlated with markers of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.

To our knowledge there have only been two other studies reporting on the use of MRI 3.0 Tesla in the evaluation of abdominal adipose tissue, both in adults [ 11, 15]. Convert malawi kwacha to usd Klopfenstein et al. Exchange rate uk to us dollar compared images obtained by MRI 3.0 Tesla to images obtained using CT, which was considered the gold standard [ 11]. Dollar to euro chart Participants were young adults with a mean BMI of 37 kg/m 2. Binary joke This study demonstrated that MRI provides accurate measurements of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Usd graduate programs Li et al. Convert usd to hkd reported similar results [ 15]. Stock meaning in tagalog In the present study we were able to show that 3T MRI allows clinicians to obtain good quality images in obese adolescents.

The availability of free software Image J suggests that the use of this technology is generalizable. How to read binary code Image J has been previously shown to provide reliable measurements of adipose tissue, with similar accuracy as Slice-O-Matic version 4.3 software (Tomovision) [ 14]. Commodity futures intraday market In addition, Image J features an “eraser” tool that allows for deletion of bowel contents, which can otherwise introduce an overestimate of fat measurements [ 10, 11].

In comparison to other anthropometric parameters, WC correlated best with visceral adiposity area in both groups. Marriott travel agent rates Using MRI, Brambilla et al [ 27]. Mortgage meaning in hindi previously showed that WC is a good predictor of visceral adiposity, whereas BMI predicts subcutaneous adiposity. Usd to canadian In our study BMI did not correlate with visceral or subcutaneous fat. Exchange rate inr to usd Other studies have underscored the superiority of WC to BMI in reflecting visceral adiposity [ 28– 30]. Math jokes for teachers The limitations of using BMI in this clinical setting are numerous. Exchange rate us dollar to pound sterling For example, depending on the definition of obesity used, the prevalence of overweight and obesity using the same BMI values can vary widely [ 31]. Usd to rmb exchange rate history Furthermore, it has been shown that BMI fails to identify excess adiposity in over one quarter of children [ 32], which in turn means that clinicians may fail to identify the need to screen patients at risk for metabolic dysregulation. Exchange rate british pound to us dollar These data, along with the fact that because of its association with visceral adiposity, an elevated WC is associated with increased future cardiovascular risk, support the inclusion of WC measurements to the routine medical assessment of adolescents.

While WC correlates with markers of abdominal adiposity, it is limited by the fact that it cannot distinguish between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Xauusd forecast This is a key distinction when determining the cardiometabolic risk of patients [ 33]. Usps shipping calculator Access to an efficient and cheap imaging modality, such as the one described in this study, that can distinguish between visceral and subcutaneous fat can, hence, be complementary to the baseline assessment of patients who may be found to have an elevated WC. Binary table The additional benefit of this technology is that accurate images can be obtained without the risk of exposing children to ionizing radiation. Binary code chart Laslty, evidence of increasing visceral adiposity can be used as an additional clinical tool to convey to the families the need to be compliant with lifestyle changes aimed at improving their body composition and ultimately decreasing the patients’ future cardiometabolic risk.

We did not observe elevations in the fasting glucose of the adolescents included in this study. List of binary numbers However, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and triglycerides were significantly higher in overweight and obese participants, suggesting the presence of insulin resistance. Binary sunset piano sheet music In addition, HOMA-IR was strongly correlated with visceral adiposity area in obese participants. Binary search tree java code This finding is in agreement with previously published studies that show a causative relationship between visceral adiposity and insulin resistance [ 34, 35].

In both groups, there was a trend towards increased triglyceride levels and increased visceral fat percentage. Usa today games It should be noted that only three healthy (9%) and five obese (20.8%) participants had triglycerides above 100 mg/dL. The box tops We found a strong correlation of total to HDL cholesterol with visceral fat percentage. Usd jpy chart live This is in accordance with other investigators, who have also shown a strong association between central obesity and dyslipidemia [ 36, 37].

Limitations of the present study include the fact that only Caucasian adolescents of advanced pubertal stage were included. Chf to usd chart Another limitation is that we did not assess the accuracy of 3T MRI in measuring subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat but extrapolated data from the adult literature that suggests that this technology is accurate. Usd myr A study assessing the accuracy of this MRI technology in adolescents would have required exposure to unnecessary radiation, as CT scans are considered the gold standard for these types of measurements.

In conclusion, we show that 3T MRI can provide good quality images using a free software package that allows fast and accurate quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat in overweight and obese adolescents. Exchange rate usd The abdominal fat segmentation results demonstrate that WC is a good estimate of visceral and subcutaneous fat and the visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol / HDL cholesterol, insulin and HOMA-IR.

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