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I’ve been coding with .NET for a long time. Exchange rate usd to yen In all of that time, I haven’t really had a need to figure out the nitty-gritty differences between float and double, or between decimal and pretty much any other type. Decimal to binary converter I’ve just used them as I see fit, and hope that’s how they were meant to be used.
Until recently, anyway. British pound dollar exchange rate Recently, as I was attending the AngleBrackets conference, and one of the coolest parts of attending that conference is getting to be in an in-depth workshop. Equity meaning in business My particular workshop was called I Will Make You A Better C# Programmer by Kathleen Dollard, and my reaction was thus:
Workshop tomorrow is “I will make you a better C# developer” by @KathleenDollard. 300 usd Challenge accepted! @DEVintersection— Matthew Jones (@ExceptionFound) October 28, 2016
One of the most interesting things I learned at Kathleen’s session was that the .NET number types don’t always behave the way I think they do. What is futures in stock market with examples In this post, I’m going to walk through a few (a VERY few) of Kathleen’s examples and try to explain why .NET has so many different number types and what they are each for. Dollar exchange rate to euro Come along as I (with her code) attempt to show what the number types are, and what they are used for! The Number Types in .NET
There’s an interesting thing to point out when comparing double and decimal: the range of double is ±5.0 × 10 −324 to ±1.7 × 10 308, while the range of decimal is (-7.9 x 10 28 to 7.9 x 10 28) / (10 0 to 28). Gbp usd exchange rate history In other words, the range of double is several times larger than the range of decimal. Rub to usd converter The reason for this is that they are used for quite different things. Hex editor windows Precision vs Accuracy
One of the concepts that’s really important to discuss when dealing with .NET number types is that of precision vs. Alphabet in binary accuracy. Python print variable To make matters more complicated, there are actually two different definitions of precision, one of which I will call arithmetic precision.
• Precision refers to the closeness of two or more measurements to each other. Dollar to british pound exchange rate If you measure something five times and get exactly 4.321 each time, your measurement can be said to be very precise.
• Accuracy refers to the closeness of a value to standard or known value. Conversion of inr to usd If you measure something, and find it’s weight to be 4.7kg, but the known value for that object is 10kg, your measurement is not very accurate.
• Arithmetic precision refers to the number of digits used to represent a number (e.g. Usd exchange rate forecast how many numbers after the decimal are used). Market futures after hours The number 9.87 is less arithmetically precise than the number 9.87654332.
We always need mathematical operations in a computer system to be accurate; we cannot ever expect 4 x 6 = 32. Asian market futures Further, we also need these calculations to be precise using the common term; 4 x 6 must always be precisely 24 no matter how many times we make that calculation. Binary arithmetic calculator However, the extent to which we want our systems to be either arithmetically precise has a direct impact on the performance of those system.
If we lose some arithmetic precision, we gain performance. Code c The reverse is also true: if we need values to be arithmetically precise, we will spend more time calculating those values. Stock connect morgan Forgetting this can lead to incredible performance problems, problems which can be solved by using the correct type for the correct problem. Investing aud usd These kinds of issues are most clearly shown during Test 3 later in this post. Solving problems by finding equivalent ratios Why Is Int The Default?
Why is the type of number always an int? Why not a short, since that takes up less space? Or maybe a long, since that will represent nearly any integer we could possibly use?
Turns out, the answer is, as it often is, performance. Usd exchange rate today .NET optimizes your code to run in a 32-bit architecture, which means that any operations involving 32-bit integers will by definition be more performant than either 16-bit or 64-bit operations. Binary to I expect that this will change as we move toward a 64-bit architecture being standard, but for now, 32-bit integers are the most performant option. Qar to usd exchange rate Testing the Number Types
One of the ways we can start to see the inherent differences between the above types is by trying to use them in calculations. Usd vs inr forecast 2016 We’re going to see three different tests, each of which will reveal a little more about how .NET uses each of these types. Jpy news Test 1: Division
Here’s the problem: because markupPercent is declared as an int (which in turn makes it an Int32), when you divide an int by another int, the result will be an int, even when we would logically expect it to be something like a double. Gender roles in society .NET does this by truncating the result, so because 20 / 30 = 0.6666667, what you get back is 0 (and anything times 0 is 0).
In short, the discount for DivisionTest1 is the expected $20, but the discount for DivisionTest2 is $0, and the only difference between them is what types are used. Canadian dollar in us dollar That’s quite a difference, no? Test 2 – Double Addition
But there’s another trick here, and that’s the usage of the “{O:R}” string formatter. Usd into pounds That’s called the round-trip formatter, and it tells .NET to display all parts of this number to its maximum arithmetic precision.
By using the round-trip formatter, we see that the multiplication result ended up being exactly 1, but the addition result was off from 1 by a miniscule (but still potentially significant) amount. Yahoo futures market Question is: why does it do this?
In most systems, a number like 0.1 cannot be accurately represented using binary. Binary to english There will be some form of arithmetic precision error when using a number such as this. Euro 2016 today match Generally, said arithmetic precision error is not noticeable when doing mathematical operations, but the more operations you perform, the more noticeable the error is. Euro usd news The reason we see the error above is because for the multiplication portion, we only performed one operation, but for the addition portion, we performed ten, and thus caused the arithmetic precision error to compound each time. Usd jpy forecast 2016 Test 3 – Decimal vs Double Performance
Now we get to see something really interesting. 1 usd to inr I’m often approached by new .NET programmers with a question like the following: why should we use decimal over double and vice-versa? This test pretty clearly spells out when and why you should use these two types.
For each of these types, we are doing a series of operations (100 million of them) and seeing how many ticks it takes for the double operation to execute vs how many ticks it takes for the decimal operations to execute. Rmb to usd calculator The answer is startling:
The operations involving double take 790836 ticks, while the operations involving decimal take a whopping 16728386 ticks. 1 usd to vnd In other words, the decimal operations take 21 times longer to execute than the double operations. Aed to usd exchange rate history (If you run the sample project, you’ll notice that the decimal operations take visibly longer than the double ones).
Further, what double is concerned with is performance, while what decimal is concerned with is precision. Xau usd investing When using double, you are accepting a known trade-off: you won’t be super precise in your calculations, but you will get an acceptable answer quickly. Usd to zar Whereas with decimal, precision is built into its type: it’s meant to be used for money calculations, and guess how many people would riot if those weren’t accurate down to the 23rd place after the decimal point.
In short, double and decimal are two totally separate types for a reason: one is for speed, and the other is for precision. Jpy usd chart Make sure you use the appropriate one at the appropriate time. Eur usd news Summary
As can be expected from such a long-lived framework, .NET has several number types to help you with your calculations, ranging from simple integers to complex currency-based values. Fundamentals of futures and options markets pdf As always, it’s important to use the correct tool for the job:
Huge thanks to Kathleen Dollard ( @kathleendollard) for providing the code samples and her invaluable insight into how to effectively explain what’s going on in these samples. The boxmasters Check out her Pluralsight course for more!
I’m continuing my series of deep dives into ASP.NET Core, on my never-ending quest to keep my coding career from becoming obsolete. Call option put option In this part of the series, let’s discuss a new feature in ASP.NET Core that will make debugging and testing much more intuitive and pain-free: Environments and Launch Settings.
ASP.NET Core includes the native ability to modify how an application behaves (and what it displays) based upon the environment it is currently executing in. Funny jokes for adults short This ends up being quite useful, since now we can do things as simple as not showing the error page to people using the application in a production environment. Binary bit But it requires just a tiny bit of setup, and some knowledge of how environments are controlled. Us stock market futures today ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT
At the heart of all the stuff ASP.NET Core can do with environments is the ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT environment variable. Inr to usd exchange rate history This variable controls what type of environment the current build will run in. Mxn usd You can edit this variable manually by right-clicking your project file and selecting “Properties”, then navigating to the “Debug” tab.
Each of those values corresponds to certain methods we can use in our Startup.cs file. Exchange rate usd to nzd In fact, the Startup.cs file includes several extension methods that make modifying our application based it’s current environment quite simple. Usd to ruble Selecting an Environment
The Startup.cs file that every ASP.NET Core application needs does many things, not the least of which is setting up the environment in which the application runs. Euro pound sterling exchange rate Here’s a snippet of the default Startup.cs file that was generated when I created my sample project for this post: // This method gets called by the runtime. Dollar rate today in indian rupees Use this method to configure the HTTP request pipeline.
Notice the IHostingEnvironment variable. Market futures today That variable represents the current environment in which the application runs, and ASP.NET Core includes four extension methods that allow us to check the current value of ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT:
Notice what we’re setting up in the Startup.cs file: if the current environment is Development, we use the Developer Exception Page (which was formerly the Yellow Screen of Death) as well as enabling Browser Link in Visual Studio, which helps us test our application in several browsers at once.
This is the coolest thing about this feature: you can decide what services are enabled for your application in each environment without ever touching a configuration file!
However, what if you need more environments? For example, at my day job we have up to four environments: Development, Staging, Production, and Testing, and very often I’ll need to change application behaviors or display based on which environment it’s currently running in. Pound to usd history How do I do that in ASP.NET Core? The launchSettings.json File
This file sets up the different launch environments that Visual Studio can launch automatically. Stock outperform rating Here’s a snippet of the default launchSettings.json file that was generated with my demo project: {
At the moment we have two profiles: one which runs the app using IIS Express and one which runs the app using a command-line handler. Usd money converter The interesting thing about these two profiles is that they correspond directly to the Visual Studio play button:
In other words: the launchSettings.json file controls what environments you can run your app in using Visual Studio. How to convert decimal fraction to binary In fact, if we add a new profile, it automatically adds that profile to the button, as seen on this GIF I made:
All this together means that we can run the app in multiple different environment settings from Visual Studio, simply by setting up the appropriate launch profiles. Usd to sgd rate The Environment Tag Helper
Quite a while ago I wrote a post about Tag Helpers and how awesome they are, and I want to call out a particular helper in this post: the tag helper.
With this helper, we can modify how our MVC views are constructed based upon which environment the application is currently running in. Usd conversion rate today In fact, the default _Layout.cshtml file in Visual Studio 2015 comes with an example of this:
In this sample, when we run the app in Development mode we use the local files for jQuery, Bootstrap, and our custom Javascript; but if we’re running in the Staging or Production environments, we use copies of those libraries files found on the ASP.NET content delivery network (CDN). Stock market trading hours pacific time In this way, we improve performance, because a CDN can deliver these static files from one of many centers around the globe, rather than needing to round-trip all the way to the source server to get those files.
Working with environments (both default and custom) gets a whole lot easier in ASP.NET Core, and with the new Launch Settings feature, getting the app started in different environment modes is a breeze! Using these features, we can:
You can check out my sample project over on GitHub to see this code in action. Eu to usd conversion Feel free to mention any cool tips and tricks you’ve found when dealing with environments and launch settings in the comments!

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