Stone (unit) – wikipedia
England and other Germanic-speaking countries of northern Europe formerly used various standardized “stones” for trade, with their values ranging from about 5 to 40 local pounds (roughly 3 to 15 kg) depending on the location and objects weighed. Binary to hexadecimal calculator The United Kingdom’s imperial system adopted the wool stone of 14 pounds in 1835. Binary decision diagram With the advent of metrication, Europe’s various “stones” were superseded by or adapted to the kilogram from the mid-19th century on. Rmb vs usd exchange rate The stone continues in customary use in Britain and Ireland used for measuring body weight, but was prohibited for commercial use in the UK by the Weights and Measures Act of 1985.
In England, merchants traditionally sold potatoes in half-stone increments of 7 pounds. Gender identity disorder Live animals were weighed in stones of 14 lb; but, once slaughtered, their carcases were weighed in stones of 8 lb. Usd gbp chart Thus, if the animal’s carcase accounted for 8⁄ 14 of the animal’s weight, the butcher could return the dressed carcases to the animal’s owner stone for stone, keeping the offal, blood and hide as his due for slaughtering and dressing the animal. Pounds to us dollars exchange rate  Smithfield market continued to use the 8 lb stone for meat until shortly before the Second World War. 1 usd to inr forecast  The Oxford English Dictionary also lists:  Commodity
The Scottish stone was equal to 16 Scottish pounds (17 lb 8 oz avoirdupois or 7.936 kg). Funny jokes for kids to tell at school In 1661, the Royal Commission of Scotland recommended that the Troy stone be used as a standard of weight and that it be kept in the custody of the burgh of Lanark. Future stock market returns The tron (or local) stone of Edinburgh, also standardised in 1661, was 16 tron pounds (24 lb 1 oz avoirdupois or 9.996 kg). Usd currency exchange rate   In 1789, an encyclopedic enumeration of measurements was printed for the use of “his Majesty’s Sheriffs and Stewards Depute, and Justices of Peace, … Exchange rate usd to inr history and to the Magistrates of the Royal Boroughs of Scotland” and provided a county-by-county and commodity-by-commodity breakdown of values and conversions for the stone and other measures. Nzd vs usd forecast  The Scots stone ceased to be used for trade when the Act of 1824 established a uniform system of measure across the whole of the United Kingdom, which at that time included all of Ireland. Stock market cnn news  Ireland [ edit ]
Before the early 19th century, as in England, the stone varied both with locality and with commodity. Binary sms For example, the Belfast stone for measuring flax equaled 16.75 avoirdupois pounds. Nzd usd chart ) The most usual value was 14 pounds. Learning tutorials  Among the oddities related to the use of the stone was the practice in County Clare of a stone of potatoes being 16 lb in the summer and 18 lb in the winter. The binary lab  United Kingdom and Ireland [ edit ]
STONE also denotes a certain quantity or weight of some commodities. Hockey players club A stone of beef, in London, is the quantity of eight pounds; in Hertfordshire, twelve pounds; in Scotland sixteen pounds.
The Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which applied to all of the United Kingdom, consolidated the weights and measures legislation of several centuries into a single document. Thb usd It revoked the provision that bales of wool should be made up of 20 stones, each of 14 pounds, but made no provision for the continued use of the stone. Famous quotes Ten years later, a stone still varied from 5 pounds (glass) to 8 pounds (meat and fish) to 14 pounds (wool and “horseman’s weight”). Vnd to usd chart  However, the Act of 1835 permitted using a stone of 14 pounds for trade  but other values remained in use. Aed usd converter James Britten, in 1880 for example, catalogued a number of different values of the stone in various British towns and cities, ranging from 4 lb to 26 lb. Eur usd historical data  The value of the stone and associated units of measure that were legalised for purposes of trade were clarified by the Weights and Measures Act 1835 as follows:  Pounds
In 1965, the then Federation of British Industry informed the British Government that its members favoured adopting the metric system. Python tutorial The Board of Trade, on behalf of the Government, agreed to support a ten-year metrication programme. Usd myr exchange rate There would be minimal legislation, as the programme was to be voluntary and costs were to be borne where they fell. Gbp to usd conversion  Under the guidance of the Metrication Board, the agricultural product markets achieved a voluntary switchover by 1976. Nzd usd live  The stone was not included in the Directive 80/181/EEC as a unit of measure that could be used within the EEC for “economic, public health, public safety or administrative purposes”,  though its use as a “supplementary unit” was permitted. Stock futures marketwatch The scope of the directive was extended to include all aspects of the EU internal market as from 1 January 2010. Hkd to usd exchange rate 
With the adoption of metric units by the agricultural sector, the stone was, in practice, no longer used for trade; and, in the Weights and Measures Act 1985, passed in compliance with EU directive 80/181/EEC,  the stone was removed from the list of units permitted for trade in the United Kingdom. Usd cad fx    In 1983, in response to the same directive, similar legislation was passed in Ireland. Usd eur bloomberg  The Act repealed earlier acts that defined the stone as a unit of measure for trade. Best exchange rate usd to inr  (British law had previously been silent regarding other uses of the stone.)
The stone remains widely used in the UK and Ireland for human body weight: in those countries people may commonly be said to weigh, e.g., “11 stone 4” (11 stones and 4 pounds), rather than “72 kilograms” as in many other countries, or “158 pounds” (the conventional way of expressing the same weight in the US). The boxer  The correct plural form of stone in this context is stone (as in, “11 stone” or “12 stone 6 pounds”); in other contexts, the correct plural is stones (as in, “Please enter your weight in stones and pounds”). Naira to pounds exchange rate today In Australia and New Zealand, metrication has almost entirely displaced stone and pounds since the 1970s.
In many sports in both Britain and Ireland, such as professional boxing, wrestling and horse racing,  the stone is used to express body weights. Convert text to binary Elsewhere [ edit ]
The use of the stone in the British Empire was varied. Famous quotes about change In Canada for example, it never had a legal status. Iqd to usd  Shortly after the United States declared independence, Thomas Jefferson, then Secretary of State presented a report on weights and measures to the U.S. Amazon international shipping rates House of Representatives. Verizon modem setup Even though all the weights and measures in use in the United States at the time were derived from English weights and measures, his report made no mention of the stone being used. Inr to usd exchange rate He did, however, propose a decimal system of weights in which his “[decimal] pound” would have been 9.375 ounces (265.8 g) and the “[decimal] stone” would have been 5.8595 pounds (2.6578 kg). Mortgage meaning in tagalog 
Before the advent of metrication, units called “stone” (German: Stein; Dutch: steen; Polish: kamień) were used in many North-Western European countries. Python dictionary   Its value, usually between 3 and 10 kg, varied from city to city and sometimes from commodity to commodity. Binary addition overflow The number of local “pounds” in a stone also varied from city to city. Stock superstock During the early 19th century, states such as the Netherlands (including Belgium) and the South Western German states, which had redefined their system of measures using the kilogramme des Archives as a reference for weight (mass), also redefined their stone to align it with the kilogram.
Although the advent of the metric system spelt the demise of the stone as a unit of measure, the stone was used in some early discussions and implementations of the metric system. Euro news today In his Philosophical essay written in 1668, John Wilkins proposed a system of measure whose unit of length, the standard, was approximately one metre and whose unit of mass was the mass of a cubic standard of rainwater (which would have been approximately 1,000 kg). Conversion from inr to usd He proposed that one tenth of this mass (100 kg) should be called a stone. Eur usd chart investing   In 1791, a few years before the French Revolutionary Government agreed on the metre as the basis of the metric system, Thomas Jefferson, in a report to Congress proposed that the United States should adopt a decimal currency system (which was adopted) and a decimal-based system of measure (which was not adopted). Binary to octal conversion  Jefferson’s proposal for units of measure included a “decimal” pound equal to 9.375 ounces (265.8 g) in the “customary” system and a “decimal” stone of 10 “decimal” pounds or 5.8595 pounds (2.6578 kg).
Neither Wilkins’ nor Jefferson’s proposals were adopted; but, in the Netherlands, where the metric system was adopted in 1817, the pond (pound) was set equal to a kilogram. Currency converter xpf to usd [nb 3] and the steen (stone), which had previously been 8 Amsterdam pond (3.953 kg), was redefined as being 3 kg. Binary hexadecimal chart  See also [ edit ]
• ^ Per the 1959 International Yard and Pound Agreement,     adopted by the United Kingdom in 1963. Currency converter aud to usd  Prior to that agreement, various minor differences existed between national standards and their conversions to the metric system.
• ^ “that every Person do sell and buy by the Balance, so that the Balance be even, and the Woolls and other Merchandizes evenly weighed by the right Weight, so that the Sack of Wooll weigh no more but 26 Stones, and every Stone to weigh 14 l. Convert us dollars to pounds sterling and that the Beam of the Balance do not bow more to the one Part than to the other; (3) and that the Weight be according to the Standard of the Exchequer. Usd canadian exchange rate (4) And if any Buyer do the contrary, he shall be grievously punished, as well at the Suit of the Party, as at the Suit of our Lord the King.”